IFLA WLIC 2017 Conference Recap

By Charles Bjork

Conference Venue - Centennial Hall Grounds

Conference Venue: Centennial Hall Grounds

The International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) held its 83rd World Library and Information Congress (WLIC) in Wrocław, Poland, from August 19-25, 2017.  What follows are my reflections on the conference as a first-time attendee.  I’ll have more to say about Wrocław as a travel destination in a future blog post.

Three things set the IFLA WLIC apart from other library conferences.  The first is its size.  It’s not in the same league as the American Library Association’s annual meeting, but it is much larger than any other library conference that I’ve attended.  As with other conferences, attendance varies from year to year, depending on the venue.  This year there were 3,300 librarians at the conference – roughly 50 percent more than the number who attended the annual meeting of the American Association of Law Libraries in Austin.

The second notable feature of the IFLA conference is its geographic, ethnic, and linguistic diversity.  This was not my first international library conference.  I attended the annual meeting of the International Association of Law Libraries (IALL) in Buenos Aires in 2014 and in Oxford in 2016.  Although I thoroughly enjoyed the IALL conferences, librarians from English-speaking jurisdictions in the developed world accounted for a disproportionate share of the attendees, with most of the rest coming from Western Europe and only a smattering of librarians from elsewhere in the world.

Conference Venue - Centennial Hall Entrance

Conference Venue: Centennial Hall Entrance

 

The IFLA conference, by contrast, included librarians from 122 countries on every continent.  Developed countries were over-represented, but less so than at the IALL conferences I’ve attended.  Only ten percent of the librarians were from the United States.  This was my first conference where the majority of the attendees were not native English speakers.  That made it feel like a truly international gathering.

The third thing that sets the IFLA conference apart is its length — seven full days.  The conference got underway on Saturday, August 19, with a series of business meetings for IFLA’s sections (including the Law Libraries Section) and interest groups.  Caucuses for regional, national, and language groups also held meetings on Saturday.  Substantive programming began on Sunday, August 20, and continued through Thursday, August 24.  The final day of the conference was devoted to library tours, both within Wrocław and in other cities and towns throughout southwest and south central Poland.

I attended the Newcomer’s Session, which took place early on Sunday morning, immediately prior to the Opening Session.   It included an introduction to IFLA by its outgoing president, Donna Scheeder; remarks from the president-elect, Gloria Pérez Salmerón; an overview of the conference and how to get the most out of it; as well as an opportunity to get acquainted with other newbies.

Opening Session - MC Introducing Wroclaw's History

MC Introduces Wroclaw’s History

The Opening Session featured a keynote address by British historian Richard Butterwick-Pawlikowski entitled Where Were You Going, Poland, When You Were So Rudely Interrupted?  In addition to introducing the audience to some of the recurring themes and continuities in Poland’s tumultuous history, the address also offered insights into the country’s transition to democracy since the fall of the communist regime in 1989.

Opening Session - Closing Number
Closing Number of the Opening Session

 

I knew from speaking with one of my Georgetown colleagues, who attended last year’s IFLA conference in Columbus, that the Opening Session would conclude with an entertainment segment showcasing the host city.  Even so, I was not entirely prepared for the ensuing 30-minute Broadway-style extravaganza, which employed a combination of interpretive dance and acrobatics to illustrate Wrocław’s thousand-year history.  Of all the library conferences I’ve attended, this one’s opening session definitely had the best production values!

Once the substantive programming got underway, I focused my attention on sessions that were sponsored in whole or in part by IFLA’s Law Libraries Section.  These included a session addressing the Challenges for Legal Research and Methodology in Post-Communist Eastern Europe, as well as a session on Optimizing Subject Access to Legal Materials.  The latter featured an informative presentation on EuroVoc, a multilingual controlled vocabulary developed by the Publications Office of the European Union (paper available for download here).

Program Slide - Optimizing Subjerct Acess to Legal Resources - EuroVoc - Multilingual Controlled Vocabulary
Program Slide: Optimizing Subject Access to Legal Resources, EuroVoc, Multilingual Controlled Vocabulary

 

Program Slide - Finding EU Documents - Perspectives From a Research Library

Program Slide: Finding EU Documents

At a session sponsored by the Government Information Section, I learned about Global Online Access to Legal Information (GOALI), a new initiative that is working with commercial publishers to provide free or low cost access to legal materials in developing countries.  GOALI is spearheaded by the International Labour Organization in partnership with Yale Law Library and Cornell Law Library.  Access will be provided on an institutional basis to law schools, courts, government agencies, law libraries, and local NGOs operating in selected jurisdictions.  GOALI’s online platform is expected to launch in February of 2018.

I particularly enjoyed a session on Transparency, Openness, and Engagement sponsored by the Parliamentary Libraries Section.  It included a presentation on a data visualization tool for public finances developed by librarians at the Chilean National Congress.  Another presentation described REDIPAL, an open platform for exchanging information about legislation pending in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of Mexico’s national legislature.  These presentations were followed by break-out sessions during which each presenter met with members of the audience for a more in-depth discussion.

Program Slide - Chilean Budget Data Visualization Tool

Program Slide: Chilean Budget Data Visualization Tool

I also attended the business meeting of IFLA’s Law Libraries Section, which provided me with a better understanding of what it does and how it operates.  One of the highlights of the business meeting was a report on two very successful workshops on open access to legal information that were co-sponsored by IFLA.  The workshops took place in Kampala, Uganda, in December of 2016, and in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, in May of 2017.  Plans for a third workshop to be held elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa in 2018 already are underway.

Another highlight of the business meeting was a report on the adoption of a Statement on Government Provision of Public Legal Information in the Digital Age by the IFLA Governing Board in December of 2016.  The statement, which includes provisions on authentication and digital preservation for long-term access, was drafted by members of the Standing Committee of the Law Libraries Section.  Its formal adoption by IFLA’s Governing Board marked the culmination of a long-term project that helped to raise the profile of the Law Libraries Section.

Program Slide - Global Online Access to Legal Information (GOALI)To broaden my horizons, I attended several sessions that had nothing to with legal information.  Among the most memorable was a session on Libraries in Times of Crisis, which featured a heartbreaking presentation that documented the deliberate targeting and destruction of libraries and archives during the civil war in Somalia.  Another session on Information Inequality stood out for a presentation on linguistic minorities, who often struggle to access information online, where English and a handful of other widely spoken languages predominate.  For a librarian who often assists faculty and students trying to find reliable English translations of foreign laws, this presentation brought a welcome change of perspective.

One of the most important benefits of attending the IFLA conference was the opportunity to network with other librarians, particularly those from other countries and institutions outside the U.S.  I was especially pleased to meet librarians from the House of Commons Library and the European Parliament Library, since many of the faculty and students that I work with are interested in writing about Britain’s impending withdrawal from the European Union.

It would have been difficult to navigate a conference as large as IFLA without advice from veterans.  Sally Holterhoff and Teresa Miguel-Sterns were especially helpful to me in this respect.  I also would like to extend my thanks to Sonia Poulin, the chair of the Standing Committee of IFLA’s Law Libraries Section, for her welcoming spirit and for making sure that I had someone to join me for dinner each evening.

I encourage any librarian who works with foreign and international legal materials to consider attending the IFLA conference, particularly if it is being held in a jurisdiction that is of interest to you or to a faculty member with whom you work.  Next year’s conference will take place in Kuala Lumpur.

Conference Venue - Fountains at the Wroclaw Congress Center

Fountains at the Wroclaw Congress Center

 

Organizing and Participating in the “Open Access to Legal Knowledge in Africa” Workshop in Uganda

By Heather Casey

uganda2This past December, I had the privilege of traveling to Kampala, Uganda and assisting with a workshop on Open Access to legal knowledge in Africa. It was for law librarians in Anglophone Africa. The workshop was organized through the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), in cooperation with the International Association of Law Libraries (IALL). It was sponsored by IFLA, IALL, and HeinOnline.

I was one of several organizers – with me were Mark Engsberg (Emory University), Joe Hinger (St. John’s University), Caroline Ilako (Markerere University), Sonia Poulin (Alberta Law Libraries), and Bård Tuseth (University of Oslo). Over the course of several months, we worked to bring together a group of African law librarians that came from the following countries: Uganda, Ghana, Kenya, Cote d’Ivoire, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, and South Africa.

Our goals for the workshop were to empower participants to utilize the potential of open access legal sources in legal research. The workshop offered a method to build a network of law librarians across Africa in order to share knowledge and assist each other in solving practical legal research questions. Participation provided an overview of open access legal sources worldwide, the practical skills required to benefit from them, and an opportunity to establish contact with colleagues from different countries.

uganda1One essential component of the workshop was for every participant to give a presentation. Most were 5 minutes long and organizers spoke from 15 minutes to 45 minutes on various topics with Q&A sessions afterward. Our reasons behind having every participant give a presentation were several; first, it encouraged each participant to plan for the workshop and guaranteed active participation. Second, each participant shared information on the legal research environment in their jurisdiction, which allowed for other participants to learn more about jurisdictions outside their own. It also assisted with networking, as each presentation allowed participants to better acquaint themselves with one another. Getting up in front of their peers gave each participant a chance to exercise skills in public speaking that they may not have otherwise used over the course of the two-day workshop.

We also had three breakout sessions where participants were gathered into small groups to foster discussion. Organizers joined in at each group table to act as facilitators for the small group discussions. After 45 minutes to an hour of discussion, the entire workshop group would come together and people from each group would relay their group’s findings.

As organizers, we wanted to ensure that participants would continue to contribute to a network for African Law Librarians. To that end, we established several online forums after the workshop for participants and organizers to engage in virtual and practical collaboration with international colleagues. The forums included:

So far the email chain and WhatsApp groups have been very vibrant. Participants continue to reach out to one another to discuss resources and let one another know what is happening in their jurisdictions. The website has been good for exchanging slides from the workshop and members have discussed what they would like to further do with the website.

We are excited to see this group continue in its efforts to further the goals of the workshop and look forward to further collaboration with members of the workshop. The experience was unforgettable and one I personally was truly honored and humbled to take part in. It was also very enjoyable to visit Uganda and learn more about the vibrant culture there. I look forward to visiting again.

#IFLA2015 Daily: Final Update from Cape Town

IFLA2By: Marisol Floren and Sally Holterhoff

The role of the libraries in providing access to legal information in Africa was the focus of the first session of the Law Libraries Standing Committee (SC) on Tuesday: Access to Legal Information and Legislative Data in Africa: the Role of Libraries and Librarians. This session was organized in collaboration with two other sections: Library and Research Services for Parliaments and the Regional Office for Africa. The session was chaired by Margo Jeske, from the Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa and Victoria Okojie from Nigeria.

Four speakers presented papers:

Speakers highlighted for some of the countries the enactment of laws or the creation of institutions to encourage building local capacity to collect, publish and keep legal information up-to-date. Across the countries the speakers enunciated similar challenges to sustain technical and physical capacity to publish the law; barriers are not only financial and technical but also institutional, changes in government organizations, for example. Kenya Law was presented as a model to be followed. Speakers discussed the role that libraries can play as collectors and providers of legal information and services, especially public libraries; several examples were given in the United States. One hundred and fifty librarians attended this first session.

On Tuesday evening the Law Libraries SC held its second business meeting chaired by Sonia Poulin (filling in for Claire Germain who was unable to attend). During this second business meeting the SC reviewed the events of the week and heard the reports of the members that attended relevant business or professional meetings. Sally Holterhoff and Marisol Floren reported on a meeting they had Sunday with Patrice Landry and Frederick Zarndt from IFLA’s Committee on Standards regarding the possibility of developing a standard on authentication of online legal materials. Sonia Poulin, Elizabeth Naumczyk and Marisol Floren, as new incoming officers, attended two leadership forums and a training session on IFLA about its operation and strategic plans, which provided guidelines for the operation of the sections. The topics of next year’s programs in Ohio were defined and program coordinators and teams were assigned. Two main areas of interest for next year’s programs were (a) digital privacy including the issues raised by “the right to be forgotten;” and (b) outreach by law librarians to public libraries to increase access to legal materials, improving access to justice for the public. The section has agreed to be involved with a 2016 IFLA pre-conference in Toronto on managing human resources in the library context.

Today is the last Law Library SC session, on the Future of Law Libraries. This session will be chaired by Sonia Poulin, from Alberta Law Libraries and Information Services, Canada. Speakers are Kirsty MacPhee from Tottle Partners, Australia; Carole Aippersbach (Alberta Legal Information Society, Canada); Allen Guerra Bustamante (Library of Congress Chile); Ali Irhamni and Joko Santoso (National Library of Indonesia), Yani Nurhadyani (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia); and Denisse Espinace y Carolina Salas (Library of Congress Chile).

This is our last report…later today we both begin our long journeys back to the U.S., tired but very inspired and full of new ideas and information from our 2015 IFLA experience. All papers from IFLA sessions are posted in IFLA Law Library and please watch for a full report from us in the fall issue of the FCIL Newsletter.

#IFLA2015 Daily: More News from IFLA Cape Town

Ifla3By Carole Hinchcliff

IFLA Opening Session

The IFLA conference opening session was a big, bright, colourful and inspiring welcome to Africa. We were treated to a variety of entertainment, including storytelling, songs by the Children’s Choir and songs by leading South African singer, Vicki Sampson. This whetted our appetite for Tuesday evening’s cultural evening.

Programs

Many papers from the programs at the IFLA conference are freely available and can be found at the IFLA web site’s repository at http://library.ifla.org/. You can get a taste of the variety of program offerings by perusing the repository.

Law Libraries Standing Committee Reception

A highlight of the conference for law librarians was the annual reception. This year’s event was hosted by the organisation of South African Law Libraries (OSALL) and was held at the new Cape Town law office of Bowman Gilfillan on Monday evening. We were joined by law librarians from the other offices of Bowman Gilfillan and other local law librarians and enjoyed good wine and food provided by South African legal publisher, Juta as we toured the new library and enjoyed the spectacular harbour views from the library’s balcony. It was an evening of laughter and friendship and the IFLA guests took advantage of the opportunity to have informal conversations about South African legal research sources and local sightseeing recommendations. A heartfelt thank you to Charmaine Bertram and our South African law librarian colleagues for being such gracious hosts.

IFLA Poster Sessions

A section of the exhibit hall was devoted to a display of over one hundred and thirty posters. From noon – 2 pm on two days of the conference, the poster authors were available to discuss their posters. An impressive poster was the one describing The African Law Library (ALL) a web site offering a variety of documents from different African jurisdictions. The ALL is a member of the Free Access to Law Movement (FALM). John Miller, Senior Librarian and Shella Hurree – Online Librarian spoke enthusiastically about their work in progress in increasing the amount of free legal information from all African jurisdictions. Review the ALL to see if this merits inclusion in your research guides.

Sally Holterhoff’s poster succinctly set out Valparaiso Law Library’s revamped legal research program for JD students. Sally entertained a variety of questions about the program and their process of continuous improvement to teach legal research problem solving concepts – the process of finding and appropriately applying legal information to address legal issues.

#IFLA2015 Daily: Greetings from Cape Town, South Africa

By: Marisol FlorIFLA2en and Sally Holterhoff

As is the tradition in IFLA the day before the opening of the official program on Sunday, the different officers and members of Sections and Special Interest Groups convene to discuss issues related to their programs and activities. The Law Libraries Standing Committee held on Saturday the first of the two business meetings that will take place during the conference. We are looking forward to two programs organized by the Standing Committee on the topics of: (a) Access to Legal Information and Legislative Data in Africa: The Role of Libraries and Librarians; and (b) the Future of Law Libraries: Tales of Existence and Transformation. The first session will take place on Tuesday, August 18, and the second session on Thursday August 20.

2015 marks the 10th anniversary of the Law Libraries Standing Committee.  Sinikka Sipila, IFLA President, and Donna Scheeder, President Elect, attended the meeting. They discussed the work that is being developed by the Law Libraries Section on access and authentication of legal information and outlined the meeting that will discuss IFLA’s strategic plan that will model the UN SDGs.

One of the highlights of this year IFLA conference is the impact of the Lyon Declaration on Access to Information and Development and the recently approved United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs articulate that: “…access to information, knowledge and technologies are critical for the eradication of the major development challenges…the strengthening of democracy; and the promotion of social justice and cohesion …” This great accomplishment demonstrates IFLA’s advocacy  to influence the United Nations (UN) for the inclusion of libraries within their post 2015 development agenda.

Because Claire Germain, Chair of the Standing Committee, was not able to attend the Conference, the meeting was chaired by Pascal Sanz (National Library of France) and Sonia Poulin (Alberta Law Libraries, Canada). During the business meeting the Standing Committee elected new incoming officers and recognized the worked done by the outgoing members of the Standing Committee. New officers of the Standing Committee: Chair (Sonia Poulin), Secretary (Elizabeth Naumczyk, International Criminal Court) and Information Coordinator  (Marisol Floren, United States). Some possible topics for next year program were discussed as well; this discussion will continue during the following days and the second business meeting to be held on Tuesday.

Another important event of the day was the meeting of the USA Caucus. Members of the US delegation are working in different IFLA’s Committees especially on Freedom of Access to Information and Freedom of Expression (FAIFE), and Copyright and Other Legal Matters (CLM).  They are developing a joint program on Tuesday on The Ethics of Access: Exploring Copyright, Licensing and Privacy in the Digital Environment. The organizing committee for IFLA 2016 to be held in Ohio reported on the events that will take place next year. One of the new features for next year is the Scholarship Program which will sponsor librarians from the United States and worldwide to attend IFLA in Ohio in 2016. ALA will be coordinating this program, targeted to the new generation of librarians. The application form will be online and the call out is programed for the end of September.

AALL should rejoin IFLA

By Claire M. GermainIFLA

In March 2015, the AALL Executive Board decided to stop AALL representation at IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions).  We are asking for your support to call on the AALL to reconsider for the following reasons:

  • IFLA is the leading international body representing the interests of library and information services and their users. It is the global voice of the library and information profession, the only one recognized by the United Nations and its specialized agencies with over 1500 members (many of them associations and institutions) in 150 countries.
  • Within AALL, involvement with IFLA is especially important for the FCIL SIS, the Government Relations Office and Copyright Committees, as it provides a venue for advocacy on all information policy issues at the global level, as well as an educational forum where librarians can learn from one another, collaborate, and develop “best practices.”
  • AALL representatives have been active in the Section.  Several have served as elected members of the Standing Committee of the Law Libraries Section, and one has risen to the position of Chair.  They have ensured that AALL members learn about IFLA programs and resources by regularly publicizing IFLA activities through the FCIL SIS Newsletter and Listserv.
  • AALL members have made the IFLA Law Libraries section what it is today: thriving and focused on the AALL agenda in terms of information policy and the law librarian profession.  For example, every IFLA conference has offered programs on digital authentication of official legal publications from all over the world to increase global access.  And the theme of this year’s conference is: Dynamic Libraries:  Access, Development, and Transformation.  Now is not the time for AALL to quit IFLA.
  • AALL members are currently engaged in a project with the IFLA Standards Committee to discuss a possible authentication standard for official legal publications at the global level.  This should be of utmost interest to AALL’s efforts in that direction.
  • In August 2016, IFLA will be held in Columbus, Ohio, attracting some 4,000 librarians, including law librarians.  This is an excellent opportunity for AALL to be involved and prepare programs and satellite meetings.
  • We all realize that we live in a time of globalization.  AALL cannot deny the role that it is expected to play in a time of international integration and cooperation.  AALL risks looking provincial and short-sighted, not only in the eyes of other library organizations, but among its own members who are continually expected to maintain international awareness of legal matters.
  • AALL needs to be represented at this policy-making body.

Additional Information on the Relationship between AALL and IFLA

  • Approximately twenty-five years ago, AALL began supporting the attendance of the President and/or the Executive Director to represent AALL at the IFLA Annual Meeting. Later the Association became an IFLA member in the National Association category. This involvement led to AALL’s instrumental contribution to the establishment of an IFLA Law Libraries Section, which was first proposed in 2001, received approval in 2005, and included officers, a Standing Committee, and a growing membership by 2007.
  • At that time, AALL made the decision to appoint an AALL member to serve a three-year term as the designated representative to IFLA.  Claire Germain served from 2007 until 2011.
  • After 2009, AALL decided (for budgetary reasons) to withdraw its National Association membership in IFLA. Since then AALL has participated by providing its appointed representative with a Personal Affiliate membership. Sally Holterhoff completed her three-year term as AALL Representative to IFLA in July 2014.
  • Anne Burnett was appointed for a three-year term, but the AALL Executive Board decided to stop the personal affiliate membership in March of 2015, without any consultation with the Representative, the FCIL SIS Section, or the membership at large.

We believe that the AALL’s decision to withdraw its membership from IFLA was short-sighted and should be revisited.  In a time of increased globalization, it is now more important than ever for AALL to have a voice in shaping international policy matters concerning libraries and access to information.

Respectfully submitted by current and former IFLA  Law Libraries Section Standing Committee Members:

Anne Burnett, University of Georgia Law Library

Marisol Floren, Florida International University Law Library

Blair Kauffman, Yale Law Library

Robert Newlen, Library of Congress

Radu Popa, New York University Law Library

Claire Germain, Chair, IFLA Law Libraries Section

Report from IFLA in Lyon

By Anne Burnett

Several AALL and FCIL-SIS members were among the nearly 4000 attendees at the 80th IFLA World Library Information Congress, held in Lyon, France, August 16-22, 2014, with a theme of “Libraries, Citizens, Societies: Confluence for Knowledge.” This was my first time attending IFLA, and I had the honor of doing so as Representative from AALL to IFLA.

Sally Holterhoff and her poster on authentication and advocacy by law librarians in the United States.

Sally Holterhoff and her poster on authentication and advocacy by law librarians in the United States.

The biggest conference-wide news was the highly-anticipated launch of the Lyon Declaration on Access to Information and Development, which outlines the need for access to information to be recognized in the United Nations post-2015 development framework and calls upon member states of the United Nations to acknowledge that access to information, and the skills to use it effectively, are required for sustainable development. IFLA is encouraging organizations and institutions to sign onto the Declaration, which is currently under review by AALL’s leadership.

Claire Germain presided as Chair over the two meetings of the Standing Committee for the IFLA Law Libraries Section. The Standing Committee and observers discussed issues relevant for the diverse group of law libraries represented and planned the Section’s activities for the coming year. A Working Group comprised of Sally Holterhoff and Marisol Floren provided the Section with an update on their Report on Access to Digital Legal Information, which assesses the official status, open access and authentication of legal gazettes. The report now covers all of Latin America and the Caribbean and work continues to assess gazettes worldwide.

Members of the Law Libraries Section collaborated with other sections to present two well-received programs at this year’s conference:

1) How Safe is the Law? Authentication of Official Gazettes: A Worldwide Report with an introduction by Sally Holterhoff and presentations about authentication of the EU e-Official Journal (Martine Reicherts, European Union Commissioner for Justice, Citizenship and Fundamental Rights), the French Digital Official Journal (Didier François, Directorate of Legal and Administrative Information), and the Federal Register (Charley Barth, Office of the Federal Register, National Archives & Records Administration); and

2) Access to Law at the Digital Cross Roads: Innovative Solutions to Complex Challenges, with multiple speakers presenting on topics ranging from building a digital repository for Myanmar’s Parliament to collaborative digitization of French heritage legal collections to designing a service-oriented architecture for automatic mark-up of documents in the Chilean Congress.

Materials for these programs are accessible in the WLIC program.

Sally Holterhoff also shared information about AALL’s advocacy efforts with a poster titled “Keeping the Law Safe: Librarians Advocating for Digital Authentication in the United States.” Visitors to

the poster were interested not only in the specific issue of authentication but also in the role American law librarians play in advocacy efforts and the support they receive from AALL.

The Law Libraries Section enjoyed a presentation and reception at the Bibliothèque Municpale de Lyon, where we learned about the fascinating (and somewhat grisly) special collection of materials belonging to early 20th century French criminologist, physician and forensics expert, Alexandre Lacassagne.

Many law librarians and parliamentary librarians from diverse jurisdictions expressed interest in the FCIL Schaffer Grant and in the FCIL-SIS Clearinghouse for Internships and International Personnel Exchanges. These colleagues were pleased to have the information and flyers provided by the FCIL-SIS for these programs.

The IFLA World Library Information Congress will meet in Cape Town, South Africa in August, 2015, and the Law Libraries Section will once again be an active presence. Keep 2016 in mind as well: the Congress will meet much closer to home in Columbus, Ohio.

From the program on authentication of legal gazettes worldwide, left to right: Charley Barth, Office of the Federal Register; Didier François, French Directorate of Legal and Administrative Information; Martine Reicherts, European Union Commissioner for Justice, Citizenship and Fundamental Rights; and Sally Holterhoff, Valparaiso University Law School and former President of the American Association of Law Libraries.

From the program on authentication of legal gazettes worldwide, left to right: Charley Barth, Office of the Federal Register; Didier François, French Directorate of Legal and Administrative Information; Martine Reicherts, European Union Commissioner for Justice, Citizenship and Fundamental Rights; and Sally Holterhoff, Valparaiso University Law School and former President of the American Association of Law Libraries.