GlobaLex March/April 2023 Issue is Live

By Lucie Olejnikova

GlobaLex March/April 2023 issue is live featuring one new article, Researching International Food Law, and six updates: Introduction to the Norms and Institutions of the African Union, the Amparo Context in Latin American Jurisdiction, Foreign Law – Subject Law Collections on the Web, Lithuania, Pakistan ADR, and Spain. Webmasters and content managers, please update your pages. We thank all our wonderful authors, new and established, for their excellent contributions and commitment to open access authorship!

Researching International Food Law by Antonella Corradi at

Antonella Corradi earned a degree in Law from the University of Rome “La Sapienza” (June, 1991). She works at the Ministry of Cultural Activities and Heritage of Italy. She wrote many articles and has contributed as co-author to a book on the intellectual property of biobanks for JLIS, an online paper, in 2010. She is a statutory auditor on behalf of the Ministry of Cultural Activities and Heritage of Italy.

UPDATE: Introduction to the Norms and Institutions of the African Union by Ufuoma Lamikanra at

Ufuoma Lamikanra is a Lawyer and a retired Law Librarian. She is currently pursuing a Ph.D. degree at the School of Advanced Study, University of London. Ms. Lamikanra’s publications include: “Law Libraries and Law Librarianship in Nigeria” in the IALL International Handbook of Legal Information Management (Danner, Richard A. & Jules Winterton, eds., Farnham: Ashgate, 2011); “Challenges of Sourcing for Legal Materials in a Globalized Economy,” 1 Babcock University Socio-Legal J. 66 (2009); and “Nigeria: Index to Federal Statutes in Force 2003” 232 et seq. (Lagos, Berean Club Pub. 2004).

UPDATE: The Amparo Context in Latin American Jurisdiction: An Approach to an Empowering Action by Gloria Orrego Hoyos at

Gloria Hoyos Orrego has a law degree from the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota, Colombia. She has a master’s degree in Constitutional Law and Human Rights from the University of Palermo in Buenos Aires and a diploma in Library and Information Management at the University of Social Sciences and Business (UCES) in Buenos Aires, Argentina. For 10 years she worked at the Max von Buch Library of the Universidad de San Andrés in Buenos Aires, where she coordinated the legal reference service; among other tasks. She remains a professor of legal research methodology there and additionally she teaches the same course at the Universidad Torcuato Di Tella. She has been invited to lecture in Argentina and other countries in the region and has been a trainer for specific projects in non-governmental organizations, the judiciary, various corporate databases, and teachers’ associations in Argentina. Ms. Orrego Hoyos is a member of the American Association of Law Librarians and between 2016 and 2019 she worked as part of the Board of Directors of the IALL where she chaired the Committee of Educational Affairs of the institution. She currently serves on the General Secretariat Training and Law at the Public Defender’s Office in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

UPDATE: Foreign Law – Subject Law Collections on the Web by Jennifer Allison at

Jennifer Allison worked as a Librarian for Foreign, Comparative, and International Law at the Pepperdine Law School Library (2007-2012) and the Harvard Law School Library (2012-2022). Having left full-time librarianship at the end of 2022, she now operates her own business, Manuscript Spa, through which she provides pre-publication editing, formatting, and indexing services for scholarly books and articles. Jennifer holds a J.D. from Pepperdine Law School, an M.L.I.S. from San Jose State University, and an LL.M. from the law faculty of the University of Würzburg in Germany. She returns to Würzburg twice a year as a visiting lecturer, teaching courses in substantive U.S. law topics, including criminal law and procedure, administrative law, common law remedies, and alternative dispute resolution.

UPDATE: Lithuanian Legal Research by Elona Norvaišaitė at

Elona Norvaišaitė was a reference librarian for several years at the Law and Politics Reading Room of the Information Center of the National Library of Lithuania. From 2006 to 2012, she worked as an information specialist at the Library of the European Parliament. Since 2015, Elona has worked at the Library of the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania.

UPDATE: Alternative Dispute Resolution in Pakistan by Farah Khan at

Farah Khan graduated with a law degree from Hamdard School of Law and started her practice as a criminal lawyer in Pakistan. She then obtained a master’s degree in criminology, and she is currently completing her MPhil in Criminology at the University of Karachi. She is an enrolled advocate, with a license to practice in the High Court throughout Pakistan. She has remained Special Prosecutor for National Accountability Bureau of Pakistan; she also teaches law at Hamdard School of law and Ziauddin University of Law, Politics and Governance. She is Associate Partner at Akbar, Sarki, Ali & Co and handles a wide range of litigation including both Criminal and Constitutional Law.

UPDATE: Overview of the Spanish Legal System and Legal Research by Esteban Cuyás Caudevilla and Gloria Priego Luque at

Esteban Cuyás Caudevilla holds a law degree and a Master of Business Law from ESADE (2008) and an LL.M. from Loyola University Chicago (2017) (merit scholarship) where he also served as a clinician in the Business Law Center. Esteban is an active lawyer in Madrid, Spain, and has written several articles on a variety of legal topics.

Gloria Priego Luque holds a double degree in Law and Business Analytics from ICADE (2021) and a Master of International Business Law from Garrigues (2022). Gloria has published about non-fungible tokens (NFTs) in La Ley Digital.

For more articles, visit

Happy Europe Day!

By Alison Shea

May 9th marks Europe Day, a celebration of all things Europe commemorating the signing of Schuman Declaration which proposed the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community – the predecessor to what we know today as the European Union.    [side note: if you’re more a Council of Europe fan, they celebrate Europe Day on May 5th]   Europe Day is celebrated officially across many countries in Europe, and I thought this would be the perfect time to remind our readers of all of the wonderful research tools the European Union has to offer.

Long time FCIL-SIS members may have attended one of our EU research workshops, including the one in 2015 which Alyson Drake masterfully recapped for this blog.  You may have also attended the 2019 webinar where Erin Gow shared some of her top resources for non-English language EU material, or perhaps you remember our 2020 series on how the EU and its member states were responding to the COVID pandemic.    And of course this very blog has a number of other European Law-related posts which you can find by clicking on the “European Union Law” tag.

To help celebrate Europe Day 2023, I asked FCIL-SIS European Law IG members to share some of their favorite EU research tools.  To be fair, I gave a very short turn-around time so I’m sure many other members would have liked to share but didn’t have a chance – sorry!!   But here are the responses I received, which highlight many of my own favorites:

Need legislative history resources on laws enacted in various European nations and/or the European Community, such as the European Law on Transmissible Animal Diseases (Animal Health Law of 2016)? Want to trace the legal framework that shaped Europe’s and the world’s cultural heritage, such as the Nuremberg Laws of 1935? Looking to understand the regulatory factors that impact present-day Trade Models in the European Union? Check out Europeana – a portal providing centralized access to legal and other cultural resources from digital collections of thousands of cultural institutions across Europe. Funded by the European Union, and via collective efforts of 37 aggregators, Europeana currently retains over 50 million cultural items in textual, photographic, and/or audio/visual formats. To enrich its continuously growing digitized collections, Europeana has launched a crowdsourcing project – Europeana Transcribe (Transcribathon), inviting the public to transcribe and annotate data intended to archive Europe’s cultural heritage for posterity.  – Anahit Petrosyan

The Your Europe portal is a great first online stop if you are looking for information about how the law protects rights and impacts many aspects of daily life in EU member states.  The EU created this site to “help you do things in other European countries,” including “moving, living, studying, working or simply travelling[.]”   For example, after selecting English when you enter the site, on search form, use the menus provided to select Citizen/Consumer > Germany > Citizens’ and Family Rights > Gender Recognition.  Then click Search.  The single search result is to the English-language page on this topic on the German government’s administrative information portal.  While the information on this page is not extensive, it does describe the basic procedural steps to complete an application to change gender, as well as a notification that, in Germany, “regulations under the German Transsexual Law are administered by Local Courts,” which may not necessarily be an intuitive first destination for people who are trying to navigate this kind of bureaucracy.  Finally, this page also lists the name of the relevant law in German, with a link to the full German text of the law in the federal government’s Gesetze-im-Internet legislation portal.  While some EU member states offer limited information in English in their online administrative portals, this site at least saves you from having to navigate absolutely everything in a language you don’t read that well (or at all).  It points you to the right place on an official government website based on the criteria you selected in English, which means that you don’t need to wade through a million results in a Google search, or even having to figure out what to type in the Google search box.     – Jennifer Allison

One of my favorite tools within Eur-Lex, the gateway to EU legislation, is Summaries of EU Legislation. It is an open access subject specific mini encyclopedia of EU law and a great place to start one’s research. Glossary of summaries offers the traditional index-like approach to exploring EU law, while advanced search (now also including a search through archived summaries) offers text/title search, summaries identifiers search (CELEX No), as well as special filters including EuroVoc or topic. The summary of legislation succinctly introduces the purpose of the law along with its key points, while also pulling together relevant and related regulations, directives, and decisions. Are you interested in knowing how EU regulates chocolate? Cocoa and Chocolate Summary of EU Legislation offers a great start.  – Lucie Olejnikova

Interested in even more?  Don’t forget the FCIL-SIS Newsletter has a wonderful series of Resource Reviews from the Electronic Resources IG, including Erin Gow’s 2019 review of Eur-lex (page 6).  And for any FCIL-SIS members who would like to talk more about their favorite European Law resources, don’t forget to join the AALL My Communities group for the European Law IG and share your thoughts there!

GlobaLex January/February 2023 Issue is Live

By Lucie Olejnikova

GlobaLex January/February 2023 issue is live featuring one new article, Researching International Labour Law, and seven updates: Cameroon, Eswatini (Swaziland), Nepal, Sudan, Forced Evictions and Disability Rights in Africa, “Space Asset” Under the Space Protocol to the Cape Town Convention and the Related Issues Under International Space Law, Researching the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations Notification Requirements. Webmasters and content managers, please update your pages. We thank all our wonderful authors, new and established, for their excellent contributions and commitment to open access authorship!

Researching International Labour Law by Erica Friesen and Brianna Storms at

Erica Friesen is a Research and Instruction Librarian & Online Learning Specialist at Queen’s University’s Lederman Law Library in Kingston, Canada. She holds an M.I. from the University of Toronto and a B.A. (Hons.) from McGill University. Erica has previously published on artificial intelligence and legal research, including a recent article titled “The Artificial Researcher: Information Literacy and AI in the Legal Research Classroom,” 26 Legal Writing 241 (2022). She is a member of the Canadian Association of Law Libraries and the American Association of Law Libraries.

Brianna Storms is a Research and Instruction Law Librarian at Queen’s University in Ontario, Canada. In this role she provides legal research assistance and delivers instructional sessions to students and faculty, as well as to other library patrons from the wider community. Prior to this role, Brianna served as a law association librarian where she delivered library and legal research services to members at various states in their careers (from articling and integrated practice placement students to senior law partners). She earned her Master of Library and Information Science degree from Western University (Ontario, Canada) and holds an Honors Bachelor of Arts degree with an Emphasis in Education from Trent University (Ontario, Canada).

UPDATE: Researching Cameroonian Law by Charles Manga Fombad at

Charles Manga Fombad, a Professor of Law and Director, Institute for International and Comparative Law in Africa, Faculty of Law, University of Pretoria, holds a Licence en Droit (University of Yaoundé), LL.M. and Ph. D. (University of London) and a Diploma in Conflict Resolution (University of Uppsala). He was, from 2003-2006, Professor Honorarius of the Department of Jurisprudence, School of Law, University of South Africa. Professor Fombad is the author/editor of 17 books and has published more than 100 articles in international refereed journals, more than five dozen book chapters as well as numerous other publications and conference papers. In 2003, Professor Fombad received the Bobbert Association Prize for the best first article in the Journal for Juridical Science. He was also awarded the Wedderburn Prize in 2003 for a paper that appeared in the “Modern Law Review.” For three years, 2004, 2005 and 2007, Professor Fombad received the special commendation award from the University of Botswana Research Awards Committee as runner up on each occasion to the University Researcher of the Year.

UPDATE: The Law and Legal Research in Eswatini by Sibusiso Magnificent Nhlabatsi at

UPDATE: Forced Evictions and Disability Rights in Africa by Sibusiso Magnificent Nhlabatsi at

Sibusiso Nhlabatsi is a human rights lawyer; an admitted attorney of the High Court of eSwatini. Nhlabatsi currently works at the University of eSwatini as the Legal Clinic Principal. Nhlabatsi is working towards the completion of his LLM at the University of South Africa; he holds an LLB and a Diploma in Law from the University of eSwatini. Nhlabatsi is the founding director of the Institute for Democracy and Leadership (IDEAL) and the eSwatini Litigation Centre.

UPDATE: Researching the Legal System of Kingdom of Nepal by Sirjana Sharma Pokhrel and Dr. Md. Ershadul Karim at

Sirjana Sharma Pokhrel is working at the Paralegal Services of Tarrant County in Euless, USA since 2019. Paralegal Services is a solo semi-legal consulting firm in Dallas. Sharma worked at theLaw Office of Sirjana Sharmain Nepal for more than 15 years. She has been practicing law since 1996. She holds a LL.M. degree from Nepal Law Campus, Tribhuvan University specializing in commercial law and International and Comparative LL.M. from Dedman School of Law, Southern Methodist University, USA.

Dr. Md. Ershadul Karim is a Senior Lecturer at the Faculty of Law, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and a non-practicing lawyer enrolled with Bangladesh Supreme Court.

UPDATE: Researching the Legal System of the Republic of Sudan by Mai Aman at

Mai Aman is a Sudanese lawyer and children’s rights advocate. She currently works as a project officer at the Children’s Rights Unit at the Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria. She holds an LL.B. (first class honours) from the University of Khartoum and an LL.M. in Human Rights and Democratization in Africa from the University of Pretoria and is currently an LL.D. Candidate at the same institution. Her other areas of interest and expertise include democracy and transitional justice.

UPDATE: “Space Asset” Under the Space Protocol to the Cape Town Convention and the Related Issues Under International Space Law by Pai Zheng & Ruo Wang at

Pai Zheng is an Assistant Professor at the International Law School of East China University of Political Science and Law (ECUPL), Shanghai, China. He holds an LL.M. (Air and Space Law) from Leiden University, the Netherlands, an LL.M. (Public International Law) and a Ph.D. in Law (Cum Laude) from ECUPL.

Ruo Wang is an LL.M. Candidate (Public International Law) at the International Law School of East China University of Political Science and Law (ECUPL), Shanghai, China.

UPDATE: Researching the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations Notification Requirements by Cindy G. Buys at

Cindy G. Buys is a Professor and Director of International Law Programs at Southern Illinois University School of Law. She holds an LL.M. from Georgetown University Law Center, a Juris Doctorate and a Master of Arts in International Relations from Syracuse University, and a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science from the State University of New York at Albany.

For more articles, visit

Webinar Recap: What in the World … is Happening in Haiti?

By Erin Gow

On February 22, 2023 the FCIL-SIS DEI Committee and the BLL-SIS co-sponsored a webinar examining the history of Haiti, the current state of affairs in the country, and the impact on legal processes and research.

Opening slide for the presentation with the presentation title and list of speaker names, included in the text below.

Professor Irwin Stotzky started the session with an introduction to Haitian history. He briefly narrated key events such as Haiti’s defeat of the Napoleonic army and achievement of independence from France. He also highlighted the devastating impact that decades of enforced payments to France following the end of slavery and colonial rule had on the Haitian economy. He explained how these payments led to nation-wide poverty, and combined with internal policies established by Haitian elites to create nearly unavoidable poverty for the majority of Haitians.

Stephanie Delia spoke next and highlighted some of the more recent events in the country that have happened against the background of the history that Irwin shared. Stephanie shared information about the extent of devastation caused by a massive 2010 earthquake in Haiti, which centered on the urban area of the capital city, Port au Prince, and was followed by several aftershocks. In addition to the immediate deaths and initial damage caused by the quakes, international support from a wide variety of organizations either failed to reach Haiti or was allocated in ways that failed to directly or concretely aid Haitian survivors. COVID-19 had a prolonged impact on Haiti, where vaccines did not arrive until July 2021. There was also a brutal assassination of President Jovenel Moïse in July 2021, another earthquake in August 2021, and international wrangling over the appointment of a new Haitian Prime Minister, all of which contributed to increasing instability in the country.

The final speaker, Magalie Desince, wrapped up the webinar by examining the impact Haitian history and recent events have had on the legal system, and by recommending resources for both historic and current legal research questions. Magalie reminded attendees that the judicial system in Haiti has been largely paralyzed, as attorneys have been kidnapped or shot, gangs control access to many government buildings and courts, and there have been accusations of corruption among judges. This makes research, especially when looking for recent case law, for example, difficult, but Magalie recommended several resources for finding Haitian law online, including: GlobaLex, BRILL’s Foreign Law Guide, Lexadin, the Library of Congress, and Juricaf for current resources. For historic legal materials, she recommended Gallica, a historic digital library provided by the National Library of France, and the Digital Library of the Caribbean. The Global Arbitration Review is likely to be of interest for those working on arbitration questions, while HG is a good source for identifying local Haitian lawyers, and both the Organization of American States and International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes provide access to relevant treaties. Magalie concluded with signs of positive change in Haiti’s legal system, where there is a newly updated penal code, moves to improve judicial oversight, get cases moving again in the judicial system, implement computerized case management systems, and establish new private business rules.

Additional information about this event can be found on the AALL FCIL-SIS Continuing Education page.

Slide listing Links to Resources

Digital Library of the Caribbean
Gallica-Human Rights Watch
Library of Congress

Current Awareness
Haiti Libre
Haitian Times
Miami Herald
Le Nouvelliste

From the Reference Desk: Using the Year Books

By Jonathan Pratter

A student had a citation to the Year Books: Y.B. 1 Hen. 7 Mich. pl. 5, per Hussey, C.J. I could decipher this to mean the Year Book from the first year of the reign of King Henry VII, Michaelmas term, a statement by Chief Justice Hussey. But what was pl. 5? It turns out that this means plea number 5. Also, what exactly was the published source for this citation? That took some research.

The Year Books are the earliest reports of English cases. They were produced between 1268 and 1535. The original Year Books were manuscript. Not long after the introduction of printing to England, printed editions of Year Books began to be published. The standard print edition was produced between 1678 and 1680 and edited by John Maynard. It is known as the Maynard edition. A facsimile reprint was done in 1979-1981 and again in 2007. The title varies. In our law library we have adapted the title given in Manual of Law Librarianship (2nd ed. 1987): Year Books or Reports in the following Reigns, 1 Edward II to 27 Henry VIII, with notes to Brook and Fitzherbert’s Abridgments. The Maynard edition has the case that I was looking for.

F.W. Maitland. Unknown(Life time: n.d.), Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

There are difficulties associated with using the Year Books. First, they are written in law French. The language of the Year Books is actually more accurately described as Anglo-Norman. A person who knows modern French will not be able to read the Year Books. A second difficulty is the heavy use of abbreviations and contractions. A partial remedy for both difficulties will be found in such works as Manual of Law French by J.H. Baker (2nd edition 1990). In addition to an “Introduction to law French” and a “Bibliography of aids to interpretation”, there is an extensive glossary of law French terms translated into English, as well as a list of the more common abbreviations and contractions.

Another solution to the issue of the language of the Year Books is to use a translated edition. The Selden Society has produced a good number of carefully edited editions of the Year Books, with valuable introductions and with the law French and English translation on facing pages. For example, there is the Year Books of Edward II (1903), edited by probably the foremost legal historian of the Year Books, F.W. Maitland. In addition, there is an edition of Year Books known as the Rolls Series edition. This includes Year Books of the Reign of King Edward the First (published 1863-1879) and Year Books of the Reign of King Edward the Third (published 1883-1911), edited and translated by Horwood and Pike. These are available freely online in the Gallica database of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, of all places. The links to the individual volumes are found in a research guide prepared by the Bodleian Law Library.

Hein Online has a collection called Selden Society Publications and the History of Early English Law. Although it is hard to tell, this collection appears to include all of the Selden Society publications, including the various volumes of the Year Books that appeared in the Selden Society Annual Series.

Screenshot of this webpage
Seipp’s Index

Also available freely online is a database titled Legal History: the Year Books. The subtitle is “An index and paraphrase of printed year book reports from medieval English legal history, 1268-1535.” The database is compiled by Professor David J. Seipp of Boston University School of Law, and is known popularly as Seipp’s Index. The database is based on the Maynard edition of the Year Books. The search screen allows searching by a number of criteria. The criterion that makes the most sense is to search by citation, i.e., term, regnal year, reign and plea number. Clicking on the “Seipp Number” in the search results brings up a substantial amount of information about the case in both English and law French, including a link to a pdf of the case in the reprint of the Maynard edition.

An excellent introduction is a short volume, The Year Books: Lectures Delivered in the University of London at the Request of the Faculty of Laws by W.C. Bolland (1921). It is available on HeinOnline and in Making of Modern Law.

GlobaLex November/December 2022 Issue is Live

By Lucie Olejnikova

GlobaLex November/December 2022 issue is live featuring two new articles, both addressing the unique challenges posed by COVID-19, titled Contact Tracing and Right to Privacy: A Comparative Law Research in China and Singapore, and The Execution of the International Public Contract During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Perspective; and six updates: Mauritania, Mozambique, Researching the Law of Latin America, Inter-American System of Human Rights, International Fisheries Law, and Researching the United Nations. Webmasters and content managers, please update your pages. We thank all our wonderful authors, new and established, for their excellent contributions and commitment to open access authorship!

UPDATE: Researching the Inter-American System of Human Rights by Francisco A. Avalos at

Francisco A. Avalos joined the James E. Rogers College of Law in 1982 as the Foreign and International Law Librarian. His area of expertise is Latin American legal research with an emphasis on Mexico. He has written extensively and made many presentations in this area of the law. Mr. Avalos has served as Secretary-Treasurer and Chairperson of the Foreign, Comparative, and International Law SIS of the American Association of Law Libraries and served on the Index to Foreign Legal Periodicals Advisory Committee. His current research interests include legal translation and the pre-Columbian legal systems of the Americas. The third edition of his book the “Mexican Legal System” been released. He updated his article on the legal citation for the 20th edition of the Blue Book. He just completed his most recent monograph titled the “Legal History of Mexico: The Discovery to the Present (William Hien Publications). Mr. Avalos retired in 2009 and now is the Librarian for the Kozochyk National Law Center.

UPDATE: An Introduction to International Fisheries Law Research by Abdullah Al Arif at

Abdullah Al Arif is an internationally experienced researcher specializing in ocean governance and the law of the sea. He completed a PhD in Law at Macquarie University (NSW, Australia) in 2019. Dr Arif is currently pursuing a postdoctoral research fellowship at Yokohama City University, Japan, funded by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). He is the author of the monograph Sustainable Fisheries Management and International Law: Marine Fisheries in Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal (Routledge, 2022).

UPDATE: Researching the United Nations: Finding the Organization’s Internal Resource Trails by Linda Tashbook at

Linda Tashbook is the Foreign International Comparative Law Librarian at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law’s Barco Law Library, a Fulbright Senior Specialist, and an attorney in private practice. Prior to becoming the foreign and international librarian, she was the Barco Law Library’s Electronic Services Librarian. Her book, Family Guide to Mental Illness and the Law (Oxford, 2019) won the 2020 Publication Award from the Academic Law Libraries Special Interest Section of the American Association of Law Libraries and the 2019 Reynolds and Flores Publication Award. Her Juris Doctor and Master of Library Science degrees are from the University of Pittsburgh. Her Bachelor of Science degree is from Texas Woman’s University.

Contact Tracing and Right to Privacy: A Comparative Law Research in China and Singapore Alex Zhang and Andrea Levan at

Alex Zhang is the Archibald C. and Frances Fulk Rufty Research Professor of Law, Associate Dean of Information Services, and Director of the J. Michael Goodson Law Library at the Duke University School of Law. Alex’s research interests include legal information and technology, law library management, knowledge management, open access to information, and Chinese law and research. Her articles have appeared in scholarly journals such as Legal Information Management, Law Library Journal, International Journal of Legal Information, and Chinese Journal of Comparative Law. She is a co-editor of Global Animal Law Research (Carolina Academic Press, 2022). Featuring 12 research experts specializing in the U.S., foreign, international, and comparative law research, Global Animal Law Research collects these experts’ perspectives, knowledge, and experiences researching various animal rights and welfare topics. Global Animal Law Research received the 2022 Reynolds & Flores Publication Award from the American Association of Law Libraries. Alex is also a country editor for Foreign Law Guide (Brill) and the chief editor for Legal Reference Services Quarterly (Taylor and Francis).

Andrea Levan graduated from Washington and Lee University in 2022 with double B.A.s in Chinese and Global Politics with a concentration in East Asia. Andrea has been researching with Professor Alex Zhang since November 2020, assisting in a few of Zhang’s projects including “Mapping Asian Legal Responses to COVID-19”. Andrea presented this research project alongside Professor Zhang at the 2022 Bridging the Spectrum Symposium hosted by the Catholic University of America. Andrea currently works as a Paralegal Specialist within the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice in Washington D.C.

The Execution of the International Public Contract during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Perspective by Mohamed Gomaa and Arushi Bhagotra at

Mohamed Gomaa is a Pre-Trial Judge at the State Commissioner Authority at the Egyptian Council of State. He is an honorary board member of the CIArb YMG Global Steering Committee. and a Ph.D. researcher in Public International Law at Cairo University in Egypt. He has also served in a legal capacity at the Egyptian Russian State University and has had the privilege to speak as a guest panelist at prestigious law conferences around the world, which included the scientific symposium on “Digital Transformation and Data Security and Safety in Arab Courts” organized by the Arab Centre for Legal and Judicial Research, as well as an event for young researchers in arbitration law organized by Faculty of Law of Aix-en-Provence. Judge Gomaa holds master’s degrees in Law and Economics from the University of Hamburg in Germany, International Business Law from the University of Jean Moulin Lyon III in France, and Private and Public Law from Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt; a certificate of Contract Law from Harvard University; and a certificate of Arbitration of International Disputes from the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. Judge Gomaa is an author and a member of the editorial board for a book entitled l’actualité jurisprudentielle du Conseil d’État français, Dar-ElnahDa, Cairo, Egypt, and he has authored several articles on arbitration, human rights during the pandemic, health laws in India and South Asia, and administrative law.

Arushi Bhagotra is a penultimate-year law student pursuing her B.A./LL.B. (Hons.) degree at the National Law Institute University, Bhopal, India. She is focusing on Alternate Dispute Resolution and International Commercial Laws. She has been proactive in the field of ADR and has taken part in competitions throughout her law school tenure. She also has an interest in legal research and drafting. Arushi has around 20 publications to her name on a variety of legal topics, including international and domestic laws and how they apply in India.

UPDATE: Researching the Law of Latin America by Julienne E. Grant at

Julienne E. Grant currently serves as Instructor & Reference Librarian at the Louis L. Biro Law Library at the University of Illinois Chicago School of Law. She previously spent almost eighteen years as the Foreign & International Research Specialist at the Loyola University Chicago School of Law. Ms. Grant has contributed to published guides on Mexican and Cuban law, and she recently co-authored a chapter (with Teresa M. Miguel-Stearns) in Latin American Collection Concepts: Essays on Libraries, Collaborations and New Approaches (McFarland, 2019). She is a member of the FCIL-SIS of the American Association of Law Libraries and has served as Chair of its Latin American Law Interest Group. Ms. Grant earned a B.A. magna cum laude in Spanish from Middlebury College, an M.A. in Ibero-American Studies from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, an M.A.L.S. from Rosary College (now Dominican University), and a J.D. cum laude from DePaul University. Ms. Grant also received a Certificate in Editing from the Graham School at the University of Chicago, and she is a freelance editor, writer, and translator.

UPDATE: Law and Legal Systems in Mauritania by Keli Vrindavan Devi Dasi at

Miss Kevashinee Pillay (Keli Vrindavan Devi Dasi) holds a law degree (LL.B.) from the Howard College School of Law (University of Kwa Zulu Natal), Durban, South Africa (2006). She is also an attorney of the Republic of South Africa (Kwa Zulu Natal Law Society since 2009). She holds a master’s degree in human rights and democratization in Africa (LL.M.), from the Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, South Africa, and Université Gaston Berger de Saint Louis in Senegal (2011). Further, she has worked at national, regional, and international organizations in the field of human rights and served as the senior researcher to the United Nations First Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Eritrea (2013). At the commencement of her doctoral studies in 2014, at the Faculty of Law, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa in partnership with the Institute for Coastal and Marine Research, Port Elizabeth, South Africa, and the Centre for Human Rights, University of Pretoria, South Africa [currently on hold], her research interests have included Climate Change and Sea Level Rise, Global South Approaches to Law of the Sea, Law of the Sea and Human Rights under International Law and Maritime Security in Africa.

UPDATE: Republic of Mozambique – Legal System and Research by Orquídea Massarongo-Jona and Isaura Ernesto Muhosse at

Orquídea Massarongo-Jona is a practicing lawyer (business, oil and gas, and labour law) and a Senior Researcher at the Center for Human Rights (CDH). She is responsible for the Implementation of the Local Human Rights Master’s Program. Currently, she is completing a Ph.D. at Ghent University in Belgium. She graduated from Universidade Eduardo Mondlane (2002) and obtained an LL.M at University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town in South Africa where she was awarded a master’s degree in International Trade Law (2003). Her areas of research interest include international trade law (WTO); human rights law, in particular the African System; and health ethics and trade law related to human rights (business and human rights), with particular interest on issues relating to women and vulnerable populations. Currently, she is pursuing research in oil and gas law. She has been a Facilitator at Post Graduate Program on Human Rights at Human Rights Center (IGC) at the University of Coimbra, on the African Human Rights System, since 2016.

Isaura Ernesto Muhosse is a research assistant who holds a degree in law from the Eduardo Mondlane University (Faculty of Law) and a degree in Planning, Administration and School Management from the Pedagogical University (Maputo). She has been a staff member at the Eduardo Mondlane University Faculty of Law since 2001 and worked as an assistant academic register until 2013. She participated as an assistant researcher in the preparation of a paper on “Media Rights” in Mozambique in 2018/19; the compilation of the Human Rights instruments in 2020; and the draft law on Safeguards Measures in Mozambique in 2020.

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From the Reference Desk: Researching Ancient Greek Law

By Jonathan Pratter

A classic (no pun intended) bibliography of ancient Greek law is found in the Introduction Bibliographique à l’Histoire du Droit et à l’Ethnologie Juridique, a multi-volume bibliography of legal history published between 1963 and 1988 under the editorship of J. Gilissen by the Université Libre de Bruxelles. Because of its fine-grained organization by subject, this bibliography doubles as a research guide. For example, the section on private law is divided into sub-sections on general works, slavery, family law, property law, obligations, commercial law, and private international law. The reader can learn a lot about the structure of ancient Greek law just by consulting this bibliography. Alas, the section on ancient Greek law in the Introduction Bibliographique was last updated in 1967.

Ancient carved bust of male with a beard
Sailko, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

What more current bibliographies of ancient Greek law do we find today? There are some; two of them are online. NOMOI, hosted by Simon Fraser University in British Columbia, describes itself as “a bibliographical web site for the study of ancient Greek law.” The home page points out that the website covers Archaic and Classical Greek law, as well as Hellenistic law. The bibliography is comprehensive, multilingual, and up-to-date. It has a dual structure. The first part is purely alphabetical by the last name of the author, but the second part is structured by general subject heading, though it lacks the granularity of the Introduction Bibliographique. The other online bibliography is Greek Law in the Oxford Bibliographies Online. It is more selective than NOMOI. It is structured by general subject category. In print, there is A New Working Bibliography of Ancient Greek Law (2011).

The Cambridge Companion to Ancient Greek Law (2005) is a scholarly yet accessible collection of essays. It covers such issues as the unity of Greek law, early Greek law, the law of procedure in Athens, substantive law in Athens, the law outside Athens, and other approaches to Greek law, including Greek tragedy and law. This book is an excellent introduction to the field.

The Law of Ancient Athens (2013) is a collection of translated primary sources arranged by subject. Sources include extracts from inscriptions, extracts from speeches by orators, and extracts from plays, among others. Trials from Classical Athens (1997) is a selection of translated speeches by the orators in 17 cases arranged by subject. The Law in Classical Athens (1978) is an introduction written for the newcomer to ancient Greek law. A more advanced overview is The Shape of Athenian Law (1993).

Side view of a relief of a head surrounded by leaf decor and SOLON along the bottom of the image
USCapitol, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

An annual journal devoted to ancient Greek law is DIKE: Rivista di Storia del Diritto Greco ed Ellenistico from the University of Milan. The journal publishes articles in Italian, English, French, and German. Symposion is a biannual collection of essays that publishes the work of the Gesellschaft für griechische und hellenistische Rechtsgeschichte of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Symposion publishes articles in German, English, and French.

An overarching issue is the question of the unity of ancient Greek law. Unlike Rome, ancient Greece was not politically unified. It was a collection of independent city-states. Continental European scholars of ancient Greek law have pointed to common basic concepts, as well as noting that the ancient Greeks themselves recognized a common cultural background for their laws in their language, religion, and customs. Several Anglo-American scholars differ from this view. They point out the fundamental differences between, for example, marriage and marital property law in classical Athens (5th century BCE) and Gortyn, another city-state (on Crete) for which there is evidence in an inscription known as the Gortyn Code, also from the 5th century BCE. In Athens, a woman received a dowry, but could not inherit property. She had no right to control property and depended on a guardian to defend her legal and financial interests. In Gortyn, there is no evidence of a dowry or a guardian. Women inherited property directly, in their own right, just as men did. Women controlled their property themselves and passed it on to their children or relatives just like men. Whichever way you come out on this debate, ancient Greek law is a fascinating field of legal history. I hope that the sources mentioned here will provide a good way into the subject.

GlobaLex September/October 2022 Issue is Live

By Lucie Olejnikova

GlobaLex September/October 2022 issue is live featuring eight updates: Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bolivian Legal Framework, Côte d’Ivoire in English and in French, Dominican Republic, Turkmenistan, and the International Commercial Arbitration. Webmasters and content managers, please update your pages. We thank all our wonderful authors, new and established, for their excellent contributions and commitment to open access authorship!

UPDATE: A Guide to the Republic of Azerbaijan Law Research by Ramil Iskandarli at

Ramil Iskandarli is a Chairman of Board of the Legal Analysis and Research Public Union in Azerbaijan. He holds an LL.M. in Human Rights and Humanitarian Law from the European University Viadrina, Frankfurt Oder, Germany. Ramil is teaching in the Social Sciences faculty at Baku State University. He is an alumnus of the leadership program in Executive Education at the Harvard Kennedy School (2017), Chevening Fellowship Program on Human Rights Law at the University of Nottingham (2008), John Smith Fellowship Program (2005) in the UK, and a participant of the International Youth Leaders Visitors Program of the US State Department (2005).

UPDATE: Research Guide to Belgian Law by Christoph Malliet and François Desseilles at

Christoph Malliet has a degree in Philosophy (1983). He has been a librarian at the Law Library of the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium since 1988, where he takes care of the paper and electronic collection, as well as the website of the library. He published five editions of a print bibliography on Belgian law (Elementaire Bibliografie Belgisch recht, Mys & Breesch, last ed. 1999). Publications on the Internet include, a former list of Belgian legal websites, now abolished, a list of Belgian legal journal abbreviations, and the online version of the mentioned printed bibliography. More recently, he mounted the project, an open access platform for pre-2000 Belgian legal journals and books. He published some articles on the Belgian legal publishing industry.

François Desseilles has been specializing in Cultural Heritage Law (University Paris-Sud XI, 2011) after obtaining a Master’s Degree in Law (2009) and a Bachelor’s in History (2010) at the University of Liège (ULg, Belgium). He practiced for several years as a scientific officer, as law and criminology librarian at the Law, Economics, Management, Social sciences Léon Graulich Library of the University of Liege (Belgium), where he is still scientific fellow researcher at the Faculty of Law, Political Science & Criminology. He is now administrator at the Court of Justice of the European Union Library Directorate (Luxembourg) and advisor attached to the Library Director.

UPDATE: The Bolivian Legal Framework by Gonzalo Dávila Maceda at

Gonzalo Dávila Maceda is the director of a Legal Counselling Office based in La Paz, Plurinational State of Bolivia. Gonzalo is an independent and private legal practitioner with postgraduate studies in Business Administration, Oil & Gas Law, and Environmental Education & Sustainable Educational Projects. After completing a French High School in Bolivia, he obtained his law degree at the Bolivian Catholic University’s Law School in 1997 and his Diploma in Petroleum Law in 2000 as a Chevening scholar by the British Government at the Centre for Energy Petroleum and Mineral Law and Policy (CEPMLP) at the University of Dundee in Scotland. For over 25 years he has focused his experience in Civil Law, Commercial Law, Labor Law, Competition Law, Regulatory Law, Administrative Law, Environmental Law, Petroleum Law, Electricity Law, Telecommunications Law, and Mining Law, having acquired that experience working for almost 9 years as senior legal advisor for the Bolivian Hydrocarbons Regulator and from his later experience in the private counseling field for 16 years. He worked as intern at the Swiss Competition Commission in Bern-Switzerland in 2005. He has participated in the drafting of legislation in the oil and gas sector. He is member of the La Paz Bar Association since 1997. He is a lecturer of Petroleum Law, Competition Law, and Environmental Law at several universities in La Paz. He speaks Spanish, English and French.

UPDATE: The Legal System in Côte d’Ivoire by Armel Olivier Yapi and Yao Mamoudou Ouattara at

MISE à Jour: Le Système Juridique De La Côte D’Ivoire par Armel Olivier Yapi and Yao Mamoudou Ouattara at

Armel Olivier Yapi is a jurist with a background in private law and international human rights law. He is currently working with Indigo Cote d’Ivoire as a project manager and senior research analyst on peacebuilding issues. With almost 10 years of professional experience in several organisations including Amnesty International, the National Institute for Democracy (NDI) and the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Armel Olivier has developed multidisciplinary skills, particularly in political analysis, election observation and international protection of refugees and internally displaced persons. For him, humanitarian and development work is the greatest gift a person can give to a person in a vulnerable situation.

Yao Mamoudou Ouattara is a jurist specialist in human rights. Project Assistant and Researcher-Facilitator on peacebuilding matters, he has worked in transitional justice as Supervisor with the National Commission for Reconciliation and Compensation of Victims of the Ivorian crises. Furthermore, he has worked in child protection and promotion of children’s rights as an instructor in the Ivorian civil society for the care of children in family difficulties. Permanent consultant member of the scientific committee of Common Action for Sustainable development Côte d’Ivoire (CASD-CI) and National Vice-President of the African Youth Network for the Fight against Money Laundering (RE-J-ABA), Yao Mamoudou Ouattara is convinced that it’s everyone’s effort that can contribute to a sustainable peace in Côte d’Ivoire and continues to provide his skills to the service of his country.

UPDATE: Legal Research in the Dominican Republic by Marisol Florén Romero at

Marisol Florén Romero is the Assistant Director for Library Services and Foreign & International Law Librarian at Florida International University (FIU) College of Law. Marisol Florén-Romero manages FIU Law Library legal reference. She oversees the acquisition and development of FIU Law Library’s foreign and international collection and is the Special Collections librarian. Dr. Florén-Romero received her B.A. in History summa cum laude from the University of Navarra, in Pamplona, Spain; a M.L.S. with a minor in Latin American Librarianship from the University of Texas at Austin; and a Ph.D. in Library and Information Science from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

UPDATE: Researching the Turkmenistan Legal System by Dovran Orazgylyjov at

Dovran Orazgylyjov, Ph.D., is a private lawyer in Turkmenistan. He is the founder and Chief Editor of Atavatan Turkmenistan Magazine. Dovran received his Ph.D. in Law authoring a thesis titled Production Sharing Agreement Under the Turkmenistan and Turkish Law, as well as an LL.M. and bachelor’s degree from Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey. He also received the Rumsfeld Fellowship from Johns Hopkins University SAIS in 2010. He is a writer of International Direct Investment and Joint venture (Turkey, Izmir, 2005) and a co-writer of a book titled Entrepreneurship (Turkmenistan Ashgabat 2013).

UPDATE: International Commercial Arbitration by Charles Bjork at

Charles Bjork is an International and Foreign Law Reference Librarian at the Georgetown University Law Library in Washington, D.C. He has a B.A. from the University of Illinois and a J.D. from Northwestern University School of Law. Prior to entering the field of law librarianship, he spent nearly two decades in private law practice in Chicago. After obtaining his M.S.L.I.S. from the University of Illinois in 2013, he began his career as a librarian specializing in foreign, comparative, and international law research at Georgetown in 2014. He also serves as an adjunct professor at the Georgetown Law Center, where he co-teaches the for-credit course Research Skills in International and Comparative Law.

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FCIL-SIS Book Club Discussion: Friday, Aug. 26th

By Renu Urvashi Sagreiya

Once again this year, interested members of FCIL-SIS will meet to discuss a selected book!  The FCIL-SIS Annual Book Club was started by Dan Wade in 2014, and it is our wish to honor Dan’s memory by continuing to hold the book discussion at the annual conference each year.

This year’s book club will meet over Zoom on Friday, August 26, at 2pm Eastern Time; email Renu Sagreiya ( to receive the meeting link!  The book this year is  American Sutra: A Story of Faith and Freedom in the Second World War, by Duncan Ryuken Williams:

This groundbreaking history tells the little-known story of how, in one of our country’s darkest hours, Japanese Americans fought to defend their faith and preserve religious freedom.

The mass incarceration of Japanese Americans during World War II is not only a tale of injustice; it is a moving story of faith. In this pathbreaking account, Duncan Ryūken Williams reveals how, even as they were stripped of their homes and imprisoned in camps, Japanese American Buddhists launched one of the most inspiring defenses of religious freedom in our nation’s history, insisting that they could be both Buddhist and American.

Nearly all Americans of Japanese descent were subject to bigotry and accusations of disloyalty, but Buddhists aroused particular suspicion. Government officials, from the White House to small-town mayors, believed that Buddhism was incompatible with American values. Intelligence agencies targeted the Buddhist community for surveillance, and Buddhist priests were deemed a threat to national security. On December 7, 1941, as the bombs fell on Pearl Harbor, Attorney General Francis Biddle issued a warrant to “take into custody all Japanese” classified as potential national security threats. The first person detained was Bishop Gikyō Kuchiba, leader of the Nishi Hongwanji Buddhist sect in Hawai’i.

In the face of discrimination, dislocation, dispossession, and confinement, Japanese Americans turned to their faith to sustain them, whether they were behind barbed wire in camps or serving in one of the most decorated combat units in the European theater. Using newly translated sources and extensive interviews with survivors of the camps and veterans of the war, American Sutra reveals how the Japanese American community broadened our country’s conception of religious freedom and forged a new American Buddhism.

For more information about the book and its author, Prof. Duncan Ryuken Williams, check out this article and podcast episode from Tricycle magazine:
Thus Have I Heard: An American Sutra

Duncan Ryuken Williams: When Buddhists Were a “Security Threat”

AALL 2022 Recap: Impressions from the Brazilian Law Panel

By Anahit Petrosyan

Working with LA Law library’s renowned FCIL collection, as a non-FCIL librarian, has encouraged me to develop my global law research skills, to complement my enduring interest of learning how diverse cultures operate and interact to resolve disputes. AALL 2022 Meeting’s FCIL-SIS panel on How to Research Brazilian Law and Government Information caught my attention, as I had not previously explored the Brazilian legal system. This program considerably broadened my awareness of valuable resources available to understand Brazil’s legal order and to locate Brazilian law.

Going in, though, I wondered why FCIL-SIS selected to spotlight Brazilian law at this year’s Meeting. True, Brazil is the 5th largest economy, and in spite of its ongoing economic challenges, plays a key role in the international legal system. Still, apparently, this October is the bicentennial of Brazil’s independence from its former colonist Portugal. Official celebrations will be held in September, which is also when Brazil’s Citizens Constitution will be up for a referendum vote. In addition, Brazil’s presidential and legislative elections are set to be held in October 2022. No wonder 2022 is a momentous year to survey Brazilian law.

Remarkably, this one-hour AALL FCIL-SIS event skillfully packed a range and depth of knowledge that can take numerous hours to assimilate. Thanks and congratulations to the entire panel of speakers and their coordinators for seamlessly facilitating this extraordinary feat!

The array of information I gleaned from this FCIL-SIS program will enable me to research Brazilian law online and navigate, more effectively, the extensive print global law collection at LA Law library. Of the comprehensive resources on Brazilian law presented in this session, the following are most useful for researching the kind of FCIL queries LA Law Library receives: free resources such as Library of Congress’ Guide to Law Online: Brazil, GlobalLex: Brazil, Brazil on, NATLex: Brazil, FAOLex: Brazil, WIPOLex: Brazil, and Canada’s National Document Package on Brazil, besides the fee-based Foreign Law Guide (Brill). All of these digital collections provide insight and references vital for successfully locating primary and secondary sources on various legal topics, for Brazil or other countries. For example, features comparative legal guides written by attorneys, for various jurisdictions, on a range of business and commercial law subjects, with references to the relevant primary law, which further can be found in full-text in other online or print sources.

Presentation slide with a screenshot of the website page on Brazil | Jurisdictions

Though, it was the last segment of this FCIL-SIS panel that I found most illuminating, as it unveiled Brazilian government websites, multi-source legal research platforms, and Brazilian law library digital collections which facilitate free access to full-text copies of Brazilian primary and/or secondary law sources. To access current Brazilian legislation online, I will now know to consult Planalto Legislation Portal and Brazilian Federal Legislation (Legislação Federal Brasileira) government websites, besides the Official Gazette of the Union (Diário Oficial da União – DOU). The former two websites are coherently organized, and provide user-friendly access to legislation.  For legislative history research, going back to the early 19th century, the materials on National Congress (Congresso Nacional), Federal Senate (Senado Federal), and Chamber of Deputies (Câmara dos Deputados), utilized along with historical Brazilian law print sources, can yield better research results faster. Of the Judicial branch websites, the National Justice Council offers an innovative way to search dockets of the latest cases in various state and federal courts. Plus, extraordinarily, LexML Brasil, a Brazilian government multi-source legal research platform, enables access to primary law of different government branches all on one site. Lastly, of the Brazilian law library digital collections referenced in the program, the following three retain an enriching range of recent and archival materials on federal judicial and legislative branch Brazilian law:  Federal Supreme Court (STF) – Biblioteca Digital do STF, Federal Senate Library – Biblioteca Digital do Senado Federal, and Chamber of Deputies Library – Biblioteca Digital da Câmara dos Deputados.

Screenshot of slide on Researching Brazilian Websites with list of resources

Collectively, the impressive expertise the speakers shared at this year’s Brazilian law panel will save me much time and energy in determining how to conduct Brazilian legal research, and that of other, at least, Latin American countries, too. I look forward to attending more in-person and virtual AALL FCIL-SIS programs to expand my global law research skills