GlobaLex January/February 2020 Issue is Live

By Lucie Olejnikova

As GlobaLex celebrates its 15th Birthday, January/February 2020 Issue features nine great updates: Ethiopia, Jordan, Netherlands, Peru, Philippines, São Tomé and Príncipe, Slovenia, Trinidad & Tobago, and the United Kingdom. Webmasters and content managers, please update your pages. We thank all our wonderful authors, new and established, for their continuous contributions and Happy Birthday GlobaLex!


UPDATE: Introduction to the Ethiopian Legal System and Legal Research by Alemayehu B. Bekele at

Alemayehu B. Bekele received his law degree from Addis Ababa University College of Law and Governance (LL.B., 2013) in Ethiopia. He is currently working as an attorney and investment consultant in Ethiopia.


UPDATE: Overview of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Legal System and Research by Tamara Sakijha at

Tamara Sakijha is of Palestinian origin and grew up in Jordan. She graduated from the University of South Florida with a literature degree focusing on critical theory. During her undergraduate studies, Tamara was the research assistant to Professor Thomas W. Smith completing research and helping with translation for Prof. Smith’s book titled “Human Rights and War Through Civilian Eyes.” She is finishing her law degree at NYU Law School, is the Senior Articles Editor of the NYU Journal of International Law & Politics, and is a member of the 2020 NYU Law ICC Moot Court Team. She has participated in various volunteer projects including tutoring programs for inmates, challenging solitary confinement, and teaching high school immigrant and refugee students. While student at NYU Law School, Tamara has worked as a judicial intern at the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia and as a summer intern for DLA Piper in New York.


UPDATE: Researching Dutch Law by Angélique Bessems at

Mrs. Angélique Bessems holds a LL.M Master of Law Degree in Dutch law and is working for the Maastricht University Library as a specialist Legal Scientific Information & Skills Support. She is also an active member, secretary, of the Juridische Bibliothecarissen Overleg (JUBO), the Dutch Association of University Law Libraries.


UPDATE: Essential Issues of the Peruvian Legal System by Milagros Bustillos Pinto at

Milagros Bustillos Pinto specializes in Tax Law (graduated from Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú in 1985) and a Partner of Hernández & Cía. Abogados in Lima, Perú. She has participated in several research projects carried out by the Peruvian Institute of Tax Law, the International Fiscal Association (IFA) Peruvian Group, the International Association of Taxation and Human Rights, Latin American Institute of Tax Law, among others. She is a Past-President of the Board of Directors of the Peruvian Institute of Tax Law (IPDT) and an active member of the International Fiscal Association (IFA), Peruvian Group. She is a former assistant professor of Tax Law I (Tax Code) at the Law School of the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú and former Professor of Tax law II (Income Tax) at the University of Lima. She was also professor of Tax Law II at the Administration and Accountancy Schools of the Academic Department of Political and Social Sciences at The Pacific University.


UPDATE: Philippine Legal Research Part I and Part II by Milagros Santos-Ong at and

Milagros Santos-Ong is the Director of Library Services of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, retired in 2017. She is the author of Legal Research and Citations (Rex Book), a seminal book published in numerous editions, the latest of which is 2018 and a part-time professor on Legal Research in several law schools in Metro Manila, Philippines.


UPDATE: São Tomé and Príncipe Legal System and Research by Gerhard Seibert at

Gerhard Seibert graduated in Cultural Anthropology from Utrecht University, Netherlands, in 1991, and earned a Ph.D. in Social Sciences at Leiden University, Netherlands, in 1999. Until 2008 he was a postdoctoral fellow at the former Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (IICT), Lisbon, Portugal. From 2008-14 he was a researcher at the former African Studies Center at ISCTE – Instituto Universitário de Lisboa (CEA/ISCTE-IUL). From 2014-19 he was associate professor at Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira (UNILAB), Campus dos Malês, São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, Brazil. He has conducted research in Mozambique, Cabo Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe and on Brazil – Africa relations. He authored book chapters, journal articles, and the book Comrades, Clients and Cousins. Colonialism, Socialism and Democratization in São Tomé and Príncipe (Leiden: Brill 2006), widely considered the definitive volume on the recent history of this African island state. He is co-editor of Brazil-Africa Relations. Historical Dimensions and Contemporary Engagements (Woodbridge: James Currey, 2019). Currently he collaborates with the postgraduate program PósAfro at the Centro de Estudos Afro-Orientais (CEAO), at Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA) in Salvador, Brazil, and is an associated researcher at the Centro de Estudos Internacionais (CEI), at ISCTE-IUL, Portugal.


UPDATE: Republic of Slovenia Legal System and Legal Research by Dr. Iztok Štefanec at

Iztok Štefanec holds a law degree (2010) and Ph.D in Law, Constitutional Law (2018), both from the University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. He is a teaching assistant for constitutional law and currently works as an adviser to the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Slovenia.


UPDATE: Trinidad & Tobago Law and Legal Research by Catherine A. Deane at

Catherine A. Deane is the Bay Area Research Specialist for Shearman & Sterling LLP. She received her primary and secondary education in Trinidad. She has a B.A. in Cultural Anthropology with a Certificate in Latin American Studies from Princeton University, an M.A. in Cultural Anthropology and a J.D. with a Certificate in International and Comparative Law from the University of Tulsa in Oklahoma, and an M.L.I.S. degree from San Jose State University, School of Library and Information Science.


UPDATE: Researching Legal System of the United Kingdom by Hester Swift at

Hester Swift has been Foreign and International Law Librarian at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London, since 2007. She has written for the BIALL journal, Legal Information Management, and has been a contributor to successive editions of City Law School’s Opinion Writing and Case Preparation (Oxford University Press) since 2006. Previously she was European Union Librarian at the Law Society Library and she began her career at HM Treasury and Cabinet Office Library.


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GlobaLex November/December 2019 Issue is Live

By Lucie Olejnikova

The November/December 2019 Issue of GlobaLex is live featuring eight great updates: Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, Libya, Mexico, Switzerland, Uzbekistan, and FATCA – Citizenship Based Taxation. Webmasters and content managers, please update your pages. We thank all of our wonderful authors, new and established, for their continuous contributions and Happy Holidays everyone!


UPDATE: FATCA: Citizenship-Based Taxation, Foreign Asset Reporting Requirements and American Citizens Abroad by Andrew Grossman at

Andrew Grossman is a retired U.S. Foreign Service Officer who served in Seoul, Abidjan, London, Tehran, Paris, Algiers and Geneva. He holds the degrees of B.A. in Economics (Clark), LL.B. (Columbia), M.A. in L.I.S. (University College London) and of Licencié en droit européen et international, Maître & Docteur en droit (Louvain-la-Neuve) and is a member of the New York Bar. He now lives in Switzerland where he writes on private international law issues, especially in the fields of nationality and tax. His other work includes “Update: Finding the Law: the Micro-States and Small Jurisdictions of Europe” and “A Research Guide to Cases and Materials on Terrorism”.


UPDATE: An Overview of the Egyptian Legal System and Legal Research by Dr. Mohamed S. E. Abdel Wahab at

Prof. Dr. Mohamed S. E. Abdel Wahab (MCIArb.), Licence en Droit -LLB (CAI), LL.M (CAI), MPhil (MAN), Ph.D (MAN), is the Chair of the Private International Law Department at the Faculty of Law, Cairo University, Egypt, Founding Partner and head of International Arbitration, Construction and Oil & Gas at Zulficar & Partners Law Firm. Prof. Dr. Abdel Wahab is recognized as a world-leading arbitrator and arbitration practitioner on international investment and international commercial arbitration, Arab and African Laws, Islamic Shari’a, and online dispute resolution. He holds several visiting positions in Egypt, the UK, and the USA and teaches Private International Law, English Contract Law, Introduction to Anglo-American Law, Comparative Law, International Arbitration, Construction Law & Practice and Online Dispute Resolution.


UPDATE: The Indonesian Legal System and Legal Research by Dewi Savitri Reni and Juven Renaldi at

Dewi Savitri Reni (Vitri) received her Bachelor of Law Degree from Universitas Indonesia and her LL.M. Degree from University of California, Berkeley (Boalt Hall School of Law). She is a Fulbright Scholar and a member of the New York State Bar. Currently, she is a partner at Soewito Suhardiman Eddymurthy Kardono, Indonesia.

Juven Renaldi (Juven) received her Bachelor of Law Degree from Universitas Indonesia and he is currently an Associate at Soewito Suhardiman Eddymurthy Kardono.


UPDATE: Overview of Legal Research in Israel by Michal Tamir at

Prof. Michal Tamir is an associate professor in the Academic Center of Law and Science, Israel and the president of the Israeli Law and Society Association. She earned her LL.B. (Magna Cum Laude) from the University of Haifa in 1995. She then became a clerk for Israeli Supreme Court Justice Itzhak Zamir. After her admission to the Israeli Bar, she served as a legal assistant in the Supreme Court. She received her LL.M. (Summa Cum Laude, 1999) and her LL.D. (SJD) (2005) from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Her main work focuses on issues concerning administrative and constitutional law, the interactions between private and public law and between constitutional law and criminal procedure. She has published two books “Selective Enforcement” and “The State Comptroller: Critical Look”, in addition to many articles in English and Hebrew.


UPDATE: Libya’s Legal System and Legal Research by Mohamed Lafi & Mahmoud Salem Sawan at

Mohamed Lafi holds an L.L.B. in Law from the Misurata University in Misrata, Libya. He worked at a law firm focusing on corporate and commercial law, including the firm’s oil and construction clients. Between November 2018 and April 2019, Mohamed Lafi worked as Head of Programs in the Tripoli office of Lawyers for Justice in Libya (LFJL). In this capacity, he acted as the focal point for the organization in-country and managed relations with civil society organizations and state authorities.

Mahmoud Salem Sawan holds an LL.M International Commercial Law from University of Reading and an L.L.B. in Law from the University of Tripoli. He is a member and a certified lawyer by the Libyan Bar Association. Mahmoud joined Lawyers for Justice in Libya (LFJL) in 2017 as Transitional Justice Programme Assistant, and managed the collaboration with Libyan civil society organizations and local stakeholders. He also coordinated the Network for Monitoring and Archiving for Justice and provided technical support on human rights documentation in Libya. Since 2019, he works as Programmes Officer at LFJL, providing legal and technical assistance to different programs. Alongside his work at LFJL, he is a founding member of the Libyan Organization of Debates (LOD), in which he participates as a debater and trainer in creating an enabling environment for constructive dialogue and tolerance in Libya.


UPDATE: Researching Mexican Law and Mexican Legal System by Francisco A. Avalos at

Francisco Avalos was the Foreign and International Law Librarian at the University of Arizona College of Law Library until 2009 when he retired. He obtained his undergraduate degree in 1971 and his Master of Library Science in 1976 from the University of Arizona. He is the author of several books and articles on the legal system and history of Mexico. He served as Chair and Secretary of AALL FCIL-SIS and has made several presentations on the Mexican legal system at national conferences and conventions. Since his retirement he has published The Mexican Legal System: A Comprehensive Research Guide (3d ed.), The Legal History of Mexico: From the Aztec Empire to the Present, The Avalos Legal Glossary/Dictionary Translator and Other Related Fields of Study: English/Spanish Spanish/English. He also updated the Mexico section of the Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citations for the 19th edition. He serves as a special consultant to the Kozolchyk National Law Center.


UPDATE: The Swiss Legal System and Research by Martin Molina and Sandro Stich at

Martin Molina holds a license en droit (law degree) from the University of Geneva and an LL.M. in International Legal Studies from New York University. He is admitted to the bar in Switzerland and in New York and is a Partner at the law firm Kellerhals Carrard in Zurich.

Sandro Stich holds a Master of Law degree from the University of Lucerne, Switzerland, and a Master of Law degree from the University of Notre Dame du Lac, Indiana. Currently, he is a lawyer trainee at Kellerhals Carrard in Zurich, Switzerland.


UPDATE: Legal Research in Uzbekistan by Mirfozil Khasanov at

Mirfozil (Fazil) Khasanov is with a UNDP’s humanitarian project. Previously, he worked for the US and international human rights and humanitarian organizations in education, training and torture prevention projects.


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New FCIL Librarian Series: Evaluating Databases

By Janet Kearney

This is the second in a series of posts documenting my experience as a new FCIL librarian. I started as Foreign & International Law Librarian at Fordham University School of Law in February 2019.

Heads up: I ask a lot of questions in this one. There is a short survey embedded, or I’d love to hear from y’all in the comments.

One of my favorite parts of my job is collection development – I’ve written on it before in a separate post highlighting the Fordham Law collection. (Sarah Reis also wrote a bit about this in her New FCIL series.) It is such a balancing of interests. We want our resources to be useful to our users and that means critically considering their needs and how they access materials. We also want to be careful stewards of the collection. There are so many FCIL books and databases out there, but not every resource is necessary for every collection. How many Oxford books do we need on the sources of international law, let alone other publishers? Certainly not all of them. And of course, the cost of these resources can add up quickly – very quickly!

At Fordham, we have a culture of asking why: why are we collecting in this area; why do we have this series? We ask these questions in our acquisitions committee, made up of reference librarians, administrators, and some technical services librarians. We try to evaluate new materials in this way, as well as evaluating our past decisions – like, why do we have so many books on drones and blockchain? (The jury is still out on that one.)

Three books. Titles: Drone Controversies: Ethical and Legal Debates Surrounding Targeted Strikes and Electronic Surveilance, Drone Warfare: Killing by Remote Control, Drone Warfare

A small sample of our drone books.

Evaluating databases is an important part of this. When an FCIL database renewal is upcoming, our collections management librarian will collect statistics and ask me to bring an evaluation of the resource to our acquisitions meeting.

So how do we evaluate databases? What are our best practices? Let me walk you through a recent example of how I evaluated a database that was up for renewal. In the survey at the end, let me know if you agree with the decision we reached.

Recently, we received a renewal invoice for the Readex Access UN resource. One of my supervisors asked me to look into it because in all her years, she’d never actually used it and wasn’t sure if she even knew it existed. I had at least heard of it (yay!), but I did not know how it was actually useful. Here are the questions I asked:

  • What is it? The Access UN index from Readex (aka InfoBank) serves as an index for “United Nations documents including Official Records, masthead documents, draft resolutions, meeting records, UN Sales Publications, and the UN Treaty Series citations.” Some full-text is included.
  • Do some other schools have it? Of the peer schools we use for comparison, 3 had it and 3 did not.
  • How functional is this resource for our users? It seemed as if librarians could get used to the interface pretty quickly, but I had doubts about our students and faculty having the patience for it. Perhaps our users do not research heavily in the UN or because so many UN documents are easily discoverable online these days, I do not get a lot of questions for UN documents. On the other hand, we do have some active researchers that use UN materials, including seminars and the Leitner Center for International Law and Justice. But most of their research is current and this is better for historical materials – is it useful for our current researchers?
  • Do other librarians who have it actually use it? For this I reached out to our FCIL-SIS chair, Loren Turner, who in turn connected me with other members to get their opinions. (Thanks for responding, by the way!) There were a wide variety of responses, and next time I think I’ll send the call out via the My Communities page so even more people can weigh in. Few of those consulted had used it, let alone regularly. Interestingly, in another group I asked the same question and essentially received the opposite answer! Those used it frequently for older UN materials.

Ultimately, I recommended that we cancel it given the lack of requests for UN materials, our close proximity to the UN Library, and the variety of available UN finding aids (the Digital Library, ODS,, and Hein for starters). Even though the cost is relatively minimal for a database, what is most important to me is the usefulness, and right now we do not have the demand for it. I find it difficult to recommend cancellation; at heart, I’m more of a library hoarder. It made it easier for me to be more realistic when I realized that the cancellation of a database is not the end of it! If need be, you can reorder it. (Not sure why it took me so long to realize that!)

Let me know what you think by filling out this survey (also embedded below)! I can share the results with the group.

2019 11th Korean Association of Law Libraries (“KALL”) Seminar in Songdo, Korea

By Jootaek Lee

lee speakingOn October 24, 2019, I was honored to be invited and speak as a keynote speaker for the Korean Association of Law Libraries (“KALL”) and the National Assembly Library in Songdo, Korea.  Songdo, located in the west of Seoul about an hour and half by subway, is a newly developed international business district. Among the 28 member libraries all of which are academic law libraries, Yonsei University is the chair and secretary institution this year, and its new innovative campus is located in Songo. The KALL was organized in November, 2008 just before the launch of the current law school system in March, 2009.  Through the KALL, Korean law libraries have been cooperating in an organized way and making efforts to increase quality of service. The National Assembly Library also participates in this seminar and shares information. Every year KALL hosts a seminar where law libraries share issues and trends of law library services.

Uniquely, this year, speakers from the U.S., China, Japan and various vendors providing services in Korea were invited. I was able to present my new article, “True Values and Justification of Law Libraries: Application of U.S. Law Library Values to Law Libraries in Korea” and introduce the American law library system and its services. Sangmo Lee, who received a PhD from a Chinese law school and researched at the Korean Legislative Research Institute, introduced the Chinese legal system and information services with extensive 120 pages of PowerPoint slides. In addition to a wide variety of primary and secondary sources in print, he introduced the famous ChinaLawInfo (; I could see how well this database is appreciated in Korea.  He also introduced;; and  for primary sources. As many of us know, he also introduced;; and for journals, and;; for newspaper articles.

A Japanese speaker, Kazuyuk Yamasawa, is from the TKC Law Library ( which I became recently familiar with.  An interpreter clearly translated what he spoke into Korean. He introduced his company’s database, which allegedly covers most cases and laws, and at least 60 journals. He emphasized that 55 law schools and 21,500 users are currently using the database.  Representatives from Lexis Advance and LawnB, which was acquired by Thomson Reuters, also introduced their recent developments.

This two-day conference and seminar were well prepared and organized.  For the last ten years, the law libraries in Korea have developed tremendously in terms of collection, services and values. Under structural and legal challenges and restraints, law librarians are providing high quality services to their patrons. Once again, I appreciated the invitation and was very pleased to speak at the seminar.kall attendees

From the Reference Desk: On Having to Say No

By Jonathan Pratter

Law librarians want to help, to provide access, to find the needed information or source.  That is in our blood.  The universe of international legal information is immense and rapidly expanding.  The internet and the World Wide Web have worked a revolution (at least for old-school types like me who remember what international legal research was like before the digital age).  It is natural for international law librarians to feel instinctively that it ought to be possible to satisfy the often pressing need for information that comes to us from our users, whether they are practicing attorneys, law school faculty members, law students or members of the public.  Yet, my thesis is that sometimes it is not possible.  There are certain kinds of requests for information or sources that are impossible to fulfil, either because the information does not exist or is inaccessible.  When this happens, we need to know how to respond.  It is not easy to tell someone that her request cannot be satisfied.  Rather than to dwell on the impossibility, a better response is to suggest an alternative, but in some cases good alternatives do not exist.  I want to consider three kinds of international legal information that can cause difficulty and may lead to the conclusion that the information is not to be found:  English translations, judicial decisions at first instance and docket information.

Photo at reference desk 10-10-19When we leave the Common-Law family of legal systems, the linguistic barrier comes into play.  Much depends on the nature of the source.  For national constitutions, we are in pretty good shape.  Resources such as the Constitute Project perform an outstanding service.  Lawmakers in other countries do not consider it their obligation to provide English translations of national or sub-national legislation, let alone of administrative regulations.  Recently I was asked to provide the English translation of the Constitution of Mexico City.  The Constitución Política de la Ciudad de México certainly does exist, in Spanish.  It is lengthy.  Conscientious research led me to the conclusion that a published English translation does not exist.  I suggested what I thought was a reasonable alternative: retaining a competent legal translation service.  This was not met with wholehearted approval.  Why?  Because it is expensive.  Nevertheless, we have to be prepared to suggest this alternative when it comes to providing English translations.

Every jurisdiction has several first-instance courts.  France, for example, has the tribunal d’instance, the tribunal de grande instance, the tribunal de commerce and the conseil de prud’hommes.  And that is just for starters.  Legifrance is, by common accord, the go-to website for free access to French law.  In Legifrance, when you search on juridictions du premier degré (first-instance courts), it turns out that the results are very sketchy.  I got zero results for 2019.  According to the 4th edition of the book, Recherche Documentaire Juridique: Méthodologie (2019), there is no good alternative.  I wager that the situation in other jurisdictions is similar.

When it comes to docket information in other countries, researchers in the U.S. are spoiled.  We have PACER and its commercial counterparts on Westlaw, Lexis and Bloomberg Law.  The situation outside the U.S. is very different.  Docket information in other jurisdictions may simply be inaccessible.  True, Bloomberg Law has coverage for what it calls international dockets, and this includes important jurisdictions like the United Kingdom and the European Court of Justice.  However, in my experience, the information available is limited and does not include links to full-text filings by the parties, such as will be found on PACER.

In practice, requests for information in the three categories discussed here are not infrequent.  Researchers who ask for this kind of information may have to be brought down to the reality that the information they need is not available.  Sometimes the right answer is no.


GlobaLex September/October 2019 Issue is Live

By Lucie Olejnikova

The September/October 2019 Issue of GlobaLex is live featuring one new article and eight updates. This issue includes articles on Brazil, Honduras, Iceland, Ireland, Liberia, Mongolia, South Pacific, SAARC, and a new article on Terrorism and Self-Determination. Webmasters and content managers, please update your pages. We thank all of our wonderful authors, new and established, for their continuous contributions.


Differentiating International Terrorism and ‘Peoples’: Struggles for Self-Determination by Dr. Elizabeth Chadwick at

Dr. Elizabeth Chadwick is a retired British academic. In recent years, she has authored ‘Terrorism and self-determination’, in Ben Saul (ed.), Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2d ed., forthcoming), ‘Terrorism and self-determination’, in Ben Saul (ed.), Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2015), ‘National Liberation in the Context of Post- and Non-Colonial Struggles for Self-Determination’, in Marc Weller (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of The Use of Force in International Law (Oxford: OUP, 2015), and Self-Determination in the Post-9/11 Era (Routledge Research in International Law, 2011). She has also contributed a number of other book chapters and journal articles on a variety of related topics, including ‘Neutrality’ for Oxford Bibliographies in International Law (T. Carty, ed.) (2014).


UPDATE: A Research Guide on the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) by Md. Toriqul Islam and Dr. Md. Ershadul Karim at

Md. Toriqul Islam is a Ph.D. Candidate at the Faculty of Law, University of Malaya, Malaysia, and Assistant Professor at the Department of Law and Justice, Bangladesh University of Business and Technology (BUBT) in Bangladesh.

Dr. Md. Ershadul Karim is a Senior Lecture at the Faculty of Law, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and a non-practicing lawyer enrolled with Bangladesh Supreme Court.


UPDATE: Legal Research in Brazil by Maíra Rodrigues at

Maíra Rodrigues graduated from the University of Brasília in 2017. She is currently an LL.M candidate in Legal Studies at New York University. Prior to joining NYU’s LL.M Program, Maíra worked as an associate lawyer in the Antitrust and Trade Law Group of a high-profile law firm in Brazil.


UPDATE: Legal Research in Honduras by Eduardo Medrano at

Eduardo Medrano obtained a law degree from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras. He also completed a Masters Degreee from Universidad Tecnológica de Honduras (UTH). He is a member of the Honduras Bar Association; currently he is an associate of Consortium Legal Honduras.


UPDATE: Researching Icelandic Law by Erna Mathiesen at

Erna Mathiesen graduated from the Faculty of Law at Reykjavik University in 2008 and she is currently pursuing LL.M. at the University at Oslo, Norway.


UPDATE: Researching Irish Law by Dr. Darius Whelan at

Dr. Darius Whelan is a lecturer in law at University College, Cork, Ireland. He established the Irish Law discussion list and the Irish Law website in 1994. He has written articles on electronic access to Irish law for the Irish Law Times, the Bar Review, the Internet Newsletter for Lawyers and the Irish Times.


UPDATE: Liberian Legal System and Legal Research by Hanatu Kabbah at

Hanatu Kabbah holds an LL.B (Hons.) and an LL.M (Public Service Law) degree from NYU. She is a senior legal consultant and researcher, public interest practitioner with experience working on access to justice in the formal and informal justice sector. She has researched rule of law issues and developed tools for legal and non- legal advocates. She taught at the Faculty of Law, University of the Gambia and was the Director of the Law Clinic of the UTG. She received her Bachelor of Laws Degree with Honours (LL.B. Hons.) from Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone and a Degree of Utter Barrister at the Sierra Leone Law School. She has been admitted to the Sierra Leone Bar since 1999. She holds a Diploma in the Equal Status and Human Rights of Women in 2002 from the Raoul Wallenberg Institute of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law from Lund University in Sweden and has also studied at the Rene Cassin International Institute for Human Rights in Strasbourg, France. She is also a Transitional Justice Fellow after studying at the Transitional Justice Fellowship Programme organized by the International Centre for Transitional Justice and the Institute for Justice and Reconciliation in Cape Town, South Africa in 2007. She is the author of ‘A Training Manual on Women’s Rights in Sierra Leone’.


UPDATE: Overview of the Mongolian Legal System and Laws by Chris Melville, Erdenedalai (Dalai) Odkhuu, Baigalmaa Tsookhuu and Undraa Sergelenbaatar at

Chris Melville is a founding Partner of Melville Erdenedalai LLP (M&E), Prior to founding his own firm, Chris Melville was the Managing Partner of Hogan Lovells (Mongolia) LLP.. He has been based in Mongolia since 2012. Chris’s practice in Mongolia includes foreign investment law, corporate law and M&A, joint venture, banking and finance, and infrastructure projects. Chris is a monthly contributor to the De Facto Gazette, an English language biweekly publication on Mongolian politics and economics. He is Honorary Legal Advisor to the British Ambassador to Mongolia.

Erdenedalai (Dalai) Odkhuu is one of the founding partners of Melville Erdenedalai LLP. He provides strategic legal advice, practicing mainly in mining, telecommunications, energy and renewable energy, infrastructure, petroleum, and finance. His practice includes negotiation, competition and regulatory law, M&A, financing and security, restructuring, and licensing and compliance law. Dalai received his LL.M from Harvard Law School and he is admitted to practice in New York and Mongolia. He also completed his LL.M in International Corporate Governance and Financial Regulation from Warwick University, UK. He has a LL.B/BA in International Law from Law School of the National University of Mongolia and he is the Honorary Consul of the Republic of Malta in Mongolia.

Baigalmaa Tsookhuu is an associate with Melville Erdenedalai LLP. She has a wide range of experience in M&A, joint ventures, due diligence, financing and securities, procurement, licensing, real estate, incorporations and restructuring, employment, competition, project finance, tax, compliance and regulatory matters, with a special interest in energy and mining, banking and finance, and international arbitration. Prior to joining the firm, she worked for Hogan Lovells (Mongolia) LLP for 4 years. She received her LL.B from the University of Tokyo. Baigalmaa is a member of the Mongolian Bar Association and is qualified to practice law in Mongolia.

Undraa Sergelenbaatar is an associate with Melville Erdenedalai LLP. Her practice area include various aspects of corporate and commercial law with specific focus on corporate, banking, finance, securities, mining, infrastructure projects, compliance and regulatory law. Prior to joining the firm, Undraa worked for 8 years as a senior legal and compliance lawyer at a premier Mongolian mining conglomerate listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. She is a member of the Mongolian Bar Association and is qualified to practice law in Mongolia.


UPDATE: Introduction to Researching South Pacific Law by Peter Murgatroyd at

Peter Murgatroyd is the Library and Knowledge Services manager at Counties Manukau Helath in Auckland, New Zealand. Formerly, he was the Law Librarian of the University of the South Pacific and Campus Librarian of the Emalus Campus of the University, located in Port Vila, Vanuatu. Peter has also managed the Information Resource Centre Manager at the Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme [SPREP], and was the Coordinator of the Pacific Environment Information Network [PEIN]. Peter Murgatroyd was a member of the working group that established the online Pacific Legal Information Institute [PacLII]. He has had articles on Pacific legal resources published in the ‘Australian Law Librarian,’ ‘Legal Information Management’ and ‘The Journal of Academic Librarianship.’


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July/August 2019 GlobaLex Issue Now Live

By Lucie Olejnikova

GlobaLex summer double issue – July/August 2019 – is live bringing a fantastic line-up of nine articles covering unique jurisdictions of Albania, Cambodia, Japan, Kazakhstan, Laos, Lesotho, Taiwan, Timor-Leste, and the timely topic of Global Warming. Webmasters and content managers, please update your pages. Please join me in congratulating our new and established authors who, once again, delivered incredible work!

UPDATE: Researching the Albanian Legal System by Engjellushe (Angel) Kozeli Mozina at

Engjellushe (Angel) Kozeli Mozina is an attorney at the firm of Rackemann, Sawyer and Brewster, P.C. in Boston, Massachusetts. She is a graduate of Mount Holyoke College and Suffolk University Law School. She serves on the Board of Directors of the Albanian-American Bar Association.


UPDATE: Overview of the Cambodian History, Governance and Legal Sources by Victoria Amann-Lasnier and Nicole Fleury at

Victoria Amann-Lasnier is a French lawyer currently working at the Kosovo Specialist Chambers and a former legal intern of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. She holds an LL.M. from University of Essex where she also worked as a Research Fellow in transitional justice. Her research interests include international criminal law and education in transitional justice mechanisms.

Nicole Fleury is a third-year law student and a former legal intern in the Office of the International Co-Prosecutor at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia. She has worked with a number of organizations on legal issues related to human trafficking, refugee and immigration law, public international law, and domestic violence, and has worked in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Lebanon, and Moldova. Previous publications include an article in the Public Contract Law Journal about combating labor trafficking in the U.S. government’s supply chain. After graduating with her J.D. in May 2019, she will serve as a Judicial Law Clerk in San Francisco through the U.S. government’s Honors program.


UPDATE: Researching Japanese Law by Keiko Okuhara at

Keiko Okuhara is a librarian at the University of Hawaii at Manoa William S. Richardson School of Law Library.


UPDATE: Laws of the Republic of Kazakhstan – Web Based Resources by Anuar A. Nurakhmet at

Anuar A. Nurakhmet is alumnus of Kazakh University of Humanities and Law from Kazakhstan (2008) and holds Masters degree in International Taxation obtained at New York University School of Law (2011). Currently he is working in tax law firm in Almaty, Kazakhstan.


UPDATE: Legal System of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic by Tuchakorn Kitcharoen at

Tuchakorn Kitcharoen is a Senior Associate at ZICOlaw in Lao PDR. He holds Master of Laws in Competition, Innovation and Trade Law from the London School of Economics and Political Science in London, United Kingdom. He also holds Master of Laws in Commercial Law from the University of Bristol in Bristol, United Kingdom. Tuchakorn earned his undergraduate degree in Law from the Faculty of Law, Thammasat University in Thailand. Tuchakorn has been a lawyer since 2012 and subsequently admitted to the Bar in Thailand in 2013. He practices law in Thailand and Laos for domestic and international clients as both a litigator and a legal advisor. His practice focuses on foreign direct investment, banking and project financing, and corporate and commercial law. He worked as legal consultant for Pepsi-Cola (Thai) Trading before joining ZICOlaw in Lao PDR in 2018.


UPDATE: The Law and Legal Research in Lesotho by Itumeleng Shale at

Itumeleng Shale is a senior lecturer and researcher at the National University of Lesotho. She holds an L.L.B. from the National University of Lesotho and an L.L.M. in Human Rights and Democratisation in Africa from the Centre for Human Rights University of Pretoria and a Ph.D. from the University of the Witwatersrand.


UPDATE: Taiwan Legal Research by Alex Zhang at

Alex Zhang is the Assistant Dean for Legal Information Services and Professor of Practice at the Washington and Lee University School of Law. Prior to W&L, Alex was the Head of Public Services and Lecturer in Law at Stanford University Law School. She received B.A. in Philosophy and a Chinese Law Certificate from Nanjing University, China and a M.A. in Philosophy from Tulane University. She attended the University of Kansas Law School earning her J.D. with a certificate in International Trade and Finance Law in 2006. She also received a M.S.I from the University of Michigan, School of Information in 2009. Alex taught Advanced Legal Research at both Stanford Law School and University of Michigan Law School.


UPDATE: Legal Research in Timor-Leste by Lindsey Greising, Nelinho Vital and Antonio Gil Lobit at

Lindsey Greising is a graduate of the University of Minnesota Law School and a member of the New York Bar. She has worked in Timor-Leste in various roles since 2005, including work on an access to justice project for domestic violence survivors as well as providing advice to a local NGO on constitutional law, access to justice, rule of law, child rights, women’s rights, and international human rights law.

Nelinho Vital received his law degree from Indonesia in 2002 and Master of Law in 2011 from Gadjah Mada University. He currently works as the Director for the National Department on Legislation in the Ministry of Justice for Timor-Leste.

Antonio Gil Lobit is a graduate of the University of Granada Law School in Spain and a member of the Royal Council of Spanish Bars. He has worked in Timor-Leste for almost nine years for the Timorese Government. During the last five years he worked as senior legal adviser to the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation providing advise on negotiation and drafting of International Treaties and drafting and introducing to the Council of Ministers and the Parliament key pieces of legislation in several areas, including International Private and Public Law, Finances and Administration.


UPDATE: Global Warming – Researching the U.S. Approach to the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol by Heidi Frostestad Kuehl at

Heidi Frostestad Kuehl is the Law Library Director and Associate Professor of Law at the Northern Illinois University College of Law’s David C. Shapiro Memorial Law Library. She holds a Law degree from Valparaiso University School of Law with a specialization in International Trade and Development and a Master’s Degree in Library and Information Science from the University of Iowa.


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