At 9:00am on Friday, March 29, 2019, Judith Levine, Senior Legal Counsel at the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, moderated a panel discussion which addressed, in her words, the role for lawyers to address climate change when political leaders do not. Joining Levine were Michael Gerrard, Andrew Sabin Professor of Professional Practice at Columbia Law School and director of the Sabin Center for Climate Change Law; Kristin Casper, Senior Legal Counsel for Strategic Litigation at Greenpeace International; and Paula Henin, a senior associate at Freshfields in New York working in the international arbitration group. In her opening remarks, Levine said that litigation in this area is an opportunity for lawyers to demonstrate “courage, creativity, and innovation.”
Gerrard highlighted a number of areas of litigation. Around 1300 climate lawsuits have been filed around the world, with the United States leading the way in the number of suits, followed by Australia and the United Kingdom.
In the United States, the largest number of cases filed have been under the National Environmental Policy Act, claiming an insufficient consideration of climate change in environmental impact reports.
Gerrard mentioned that public nuisance doctrine cases have reemerged under state common law, since the Supreme Court had held in American Electric Power v. Connecticut that the Clean Air Act displaced any federal common law claims. There have also been securities fraud lawsuits, mostly against Exxon.
Gerrard discussed an ongoing case brought under public trust doctrine and substantive due process theories, Juliana v. United States. In that case, young people sued the United States government arguing that it has an obligation to protect the atmosphere and seeking an order that would force the government to aggressively cut back on greenhouse gas emissions. Currently the 9th Circuit interlocutory appeal is being briefed.
He then turned to cases from outside the United States, including Urgenda Foundation v. State of the Netherlands. In that case, a Dutch environmental group and 800 Dutch citizens sued their government, arguing that it was not doing enough to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions. The trial court ruled that the government had violated their duty of care under Dutch law to take climate change mitigation measures. The appellate court affirmed the judgment for the plaintiffs under different grounds: that the government had an obligation under Articles II and IX of the European Convention on Human Rights to do more to fight climate change. This case is now being appealed to the highest court in the Netherlands. Gerrard also discussed cases in Pakistan and Peru.
Next, Kristin Casper from Greenpeace International took to the podium. She described climate change as a “human rights crisis” and highlighted three of Greenpeace’s cases where local communities are using legal tools to “seek climate justice.”
In Norway, Greenpeace Nordic partnered with a Norwegian organization that sued the government, arguing that the issuance of oil and gas leases in Arctic waters was in contradiction with Norway’s international commitments and a breach of constitutional protections for future generations, the right to a healthy environment, and other human rights standards. The lower court found that the right to a healthy environment was, as Casper called it, a “claimable right with teeth,” but it did not find that the right was violated in this particular factual scenario. The case has been appealed.
In Switzerland, Greenpeace Switzerland supported a group of over 1000 senior citizen women who brought a case arguing that the government’s inadequate climate change policies contributed to heatwaves, putting their lives and health at risk. The decision in the lower court was not favorable, but the case is now on appeal.
In the Philippines, a group of Typhoon Haiyan survivors joined by Greenpeace Southeast Asia-Philippines and other organizations filed a legal petition with the Commission on Human Rights, seeking to hold major carbon-producing companies accountable for climate impacts that result in human rights harms. There have been 12 hearings, 26 community witnesses, and 52 experts who have given evidence, all of which can be viewed online. The Commission has the ability to issue a report with recommendations and to continue to monitor the human rights situation in the Philippines with respect to climate change.
Finally, it was Paula Henin’s turn to share her insights. First, she discussed mechanisms for interstate disputes arising out of substantive obligations of the Paris Agreement.
Article 14 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is incorporated by reference in Article 24 of the Paris Agreement. Article 14-1 allows parties to settle disputes through negotiation and the peaceful means of their own choice, which could include arbitration or mediation. Article 14-2 states that contracting parties may consent by a separate written instrument to the compulsory submission of disputes to the International Court of Justice and/or to arbitration in accordance with procedures to be provided in an arbitration annex to be adopted by the Conference of the Parties “as soon as possible.” However, no arbitration annex has yet been adopted.
Henin also described the possibility for the UN General Assembly to refer legal questions to the International Court of Justice for advisory opinions. There has been discussion of using that mechanism for climate change issues.
Next Henin turned to disputes involving private actors. Most investor-state disputes go to arbitration under treaties or under investment contracts. In the arena of treaty-based arbitration, Henin said that there have been over 40 claims brought against Spain, Italy, and the Czech Republic after those states backpedaled on incentive schemes put in place to promote renewable energy levels. She said that some recent arbitral decisions have opened the door for a new mechanism in investor-state arbitration: environmental counterclaims against investors brought by states. Investment contracts may incorporate specific emission reduction obligations or arbitration clauses may be included in contractual commitments that arise directly out of Kyoto Protocol mechanisms like carbon emission trading or climate finance.
To conclude the panel, Casper exhorted the attendees to devote their intelligence and resources to working to make progress on climate change.